Plutus Timeline

Plutus Timeline

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Plutus Timeline - History

Unlike many other blockchains, Cardano does not rely on technical foundations taken from Bitcoin or other cryptocurrency systems. Instead, IOHK works with world-leading academics on fundamental research, most of which is subject to academic peer review, with papers presented at top-tier international conferences. The work on all major components and functional areas begins with such research to determine what is possible and what is the best way to accomplish it.


In collaboration with the research team, a technical prototyping team experiments with implementations of the functions and approach described in the research. The objective is to make what is theoretically possible actually possible while learning lessons about real-world technical and functional implementation issues, enabling the creation of technical specifications for building the actual product.

Technical Specifications

In collaboration with prototyping, technical specifications are created and published based on research and prototyping results, setting out expected functionality and behavior. These specifications ensure that the final code implementation is true to the original vision of the research, accomplishes the required functionality, and is technically feasible.

Formal Development Methods

IOHK engineers make great use of formal development methods: rigorous, mathematical techniques for testing that software works exactly as intended. Typically only employed in high-stakes applications such as avionics software, systems for space flight, or high-volume banking software, IOHK is applying this level of rigor to Cardano development in a blockchain industry first.

Functional Programming

IOHK embraces functional programming languages, most notably Haskell. Not only are functional programming languages less prone to ambiguity and human error than other languages, they are easier to test and verify from a mathematical standpoint, strengthening IOHK’s commitment to high-assurance formal development.

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June 11, 2021


This week, the team removed legacy clusters along with Jormungandr support, fixed issues related to sending large quantities of native tokens, and completed minor fixes for the ‘Share wallet address’ feature and native token operations for Trezor hardware wallets.

The team continued implementing the expanded view of native tokens and earned rewards history features in the ‘Summary’ screen.

Finally, they are still implementing Catalyst voting support for Ledger and Trezor hardware wallets and updating Electron (a framework that enables the usage of web technologies to build desktop applications) and related dependency versions.


This week, the team finished the update for cardano-wallet to node version 1.27, and are currently working on the consolidation and streamlining of APIs enabling transactions with Alonzo/Plutus features.

They're also working on a token minting and burning feature, and have started developing a solution to allow fetching a key on any derivation path.


This week, the team worked on the P2P master branch, updated the cardano-ping protocol in line with keep-alive protocol changes, and worked on clean connection shutdown properties. They added a missing API to io-sim-classes and also worked on cardano-cli with the Alonzo team.

The team also made a technical presentation of pipelining in TypedProtocols, which is a framework for writing binary session types in Haskell.

Finally, they reviewed and updated the cardano-node documentation, reviewed some community pull requests, and provided feedback to the Hydra team.


This week, the team worked on the ERC20 converter amendments, implemented Bitte stack support outside AWS, and supported Alonzo Blue testnet activities.

The team also updated Daedalus Electron fixes, tested and deployed db-sync v. 10.0.0, and implemented flake.nix for the cardano-wallet.


This week, the team made progress adding Cardano API dependencies, building the new chain index, and resolving numerous issues and requests. They also discussed the pull-based approach to the networking layer using ouroboros-network.

The team continued working on the Hydra project implementing the preliminary user journey, and extended end-to-end tests to drive the implementation of the Head ‘closing’. They built Hydra-the-project using Hydra-the-CI to initially cache nix-shell derivations, and worked on Hydra node metrics using Prometheus. The team also provided feedback on simulation results to researchers and adapted the protocol accordingly.


This week, the Plutus team improved checkpointing to allow for constant-space contract instances. They also renamed user experience elements of the Typed validator interface for better clarity, and organized policy information into modules. The team planned for in-browser PAB development and WBE authorization flow, and made changes to the PAB Uniswap example by adding a direct Plutus data decoder for integers and constructor tags. They also enhanced the mock wallet API to align with the real wallet API.

The Marlowe team worked on the new homepage for the Marlowe Playground and updated the favicon. They also investigated how to ensure that transactions cannot be made if the wallet has insufficient funds.

Historical Events on April 22

Event of Interest

1509 Henry VIII, 2nd Tudor king of England ascends to the throne at age 17, after the death of his father, Henry VII

    French King Francois I declares war on Spain 1st slave revolt in North America at San Miguel de Gualdape, a Spanish settlement (now part of South Carolina) Treaty of Saragosa: Spain and Portugal divide eastern hemisphere

Event of Interest

1648 English army claims King Charles I responsible for bloodshed

Event of Interest

1671 King Charles II sits in on English parliament

Salem Witch Trials

1692 Edward Bishop is jailed for proposing flogging as a cure for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts

    19 VOC "komplotteurs" in Batavia executed Pierre de Marivaux' "Le Triomphe de Plutus" premieres in Paris Austria & Bavaria sign Peace Treaty of Füssen, ending Bavaria's participation (on the French side) in the War of the Austrian Succession Madame du Barry becomes King Louis XV's "official" mistress President Washington attends opening of Rickett's, 1st circus in US

Event of Interest

Victory in Battle

1809 Battle at Eckmuhl - Napoleon beats Austria Archduke Charles

    Curacao prohibits use of white paint due to fierce sunlight Baltic Club (Exchange) forms in London R J Tyers patents roller skates English steamship "Sirius" docks in NYC after crossing the Atlantic, first transatlantic steam passenger service US mints 2 cent coin (1st appearance of "In God We Trust") All German Jews emancipated after the German Constitution adopted by its last state Bavaria 1st official National League baseball game is played Boston Red Caps beat Philadelphia Athletics, 6-5 at the Jefferson Street Grounds, Philadelphia

Event of Interest

    Philadelphia native Tim McGinley of the Boston Red Caps scores baseball National League's 1st run, in Philadelphia Thomas Stevens starts 1st bike trip around world (2 yrs 9 mths)

Election of Interest

1893 Paul Kruger elected President of Transvaal for 3rd time

    NYC Jewish newspaper "Forward" begins publishing (still active) 1st Spanish–American War action sees the USS Nashville capture a Spanish ship Baltimore James Hughes no-hits Boston Braves 8-0 Cincinnati Red Theodore Breitenstein no-hits Pirates 11-0 Congress passes Volunteer Army Act calling for a Volunteer Cavalry US President McKinley orders blockade of Cuban harbors American Power Boat Association forms Highlanders (Yankees) 1st game in New York at Hilltop Park vs Washington Senators, lose 3-1 before 11,950 Operations begin uniting conservatory of Nature monument Amsterdam Intercalated Games opens in Athens New rule puts umpire in sole charge of all game balls Queensland beat NSW by 171 runs for their 1st cricket win at Gabba Montenegro troops march into Skoetari, North-Albania

Event of Interest

1914 Babe Ruth's 1st professional game (as a pitcher) is a 6-hit 6-0 win

History of Bodiam Castle

Originally built in 1385, Bodiam Castle has spent centuries as one of the best loved and best known castles in England. Perhaps it is the design of the building, with an iconic moat and beautiful lush green scenery, or simply the amazing history of the building, which makes it so popular?

The castle was built by Sir Edward Dalyngrigge, who is known to have once been a knight of Edward III. With his knowledge of battles, he designed the castle with the intention of defending the beautiful area of Easts Sussex, from a possible invasion by the French, during The Hundred Years Wars.

Sir Edward Dalyngrigge was the youngest son within his family and this meant that he was the last in line to inherit anything from the estate. However, he married into a family that owned land, and it was during 1378 that he found himself owning the manor of Bodiam. During is knighthood, which spanned from 1379 to 1388 he found himself with enough money to build himself a home, which was the beginnings of Bodiam Castle.

A fortified home becomes a castle

Originally, Sir Edward decided to build himself a manor home, a place that was stately and impressive and was even home to weekly market and annual fair, held in the grounds.

It was 2 years later, when the people of England found themselves in a state of panic due to fleets of ship, that Sir Edward was allowed to take the steps towards fortifying his manor home and protecting his estate and his family.

Rather than using the building that he already called home, Sir Edward decided that he wanted to build an entirely new building instead. This was Bodiam Castle.

It became a large project, with the entire castle being built at the same time. This meant that the entire design and style of the castle is the same, which is not something that you often see in other examples.

At the same time as the castle was built, the gardens were landscaped and they featured a variety of different waterways around them.

An interesting example of a castle

Not only was Bodiam Castle built to protect its inhabitants, but it was also made to be an inviting home too. The design of the castle is something that still intrigues people in this modern time. It is a quadrangular design and features chambers on the outer walls as well as towers on each of the entrance points and the corners. These towers were important as lookouts for any potential attacks that would require a quick response.

It also features inner courts, which allowed for space for those living and working within the castle.

One of the most attractive parts of the castle had to be the moat, however, whilst this moat looked beautiful, it acted as a sewage system for some 30 different toilets that were found throughout the castle, perhaps not smelling as great as it looked!

The ownership of Bodiam Castle

Bodiam Castle was passed down through the Dalyngrigges family, until the line became extinct at there was no-one else from the family alive to live there. This is when it changed hands (via marriage) to the Lewknor family. Whilst it was taken away from them during the War of Roses, 2 years later it was returned to the family, who owned the castle until the 16 th Century.

During the start of the English Civil War in 1641, the castle was owned by Lord Thanet, a descendant of the Lewknor family. He was a keen supporter of the cause of the Royalists, and he took the decision to sell the castle in order to pay for fines that were brought against him by the Parliament.

The castle was bought and dismantled, being left in ruin (albeit a beautiful ruin) until it was purchased in 1829 by John Fuller.

John Fuller took on the project to restore the castle partially, until it was sold to George Cubitt and then to Lord Curzon, both of which decided to further the restoration work and try to create a testament to the former glory of this fascinating building.

The castle became a Grade I listed building and has been owned by The National Trust since 1925, donated to them by Lord Curzon on his death bed, with the decision taken to open up the ruins to the public.

Landscape and Design

As Bodiam Castle was built to protect the South Coast from the French, it come as no surprise that it is fortified and perfect for any battle. However, if you consider the location of the castle, then it does seem strange that it was designed to protect a coast that it is quite far away from.

Not only was the castle made to protect, but it was also designed to look great too. Particularly if you look at the surrounding landscape. Much like some of the other aspects of the castle, it seems that some of the exterior isn’t quite as grand as it once was, however, enough remains that you can still get a great idea of how it would have once looked.

It also features a number of prime examples of architecture from the 14th Century, with a twin towered gatehouse entrance and plenty of towers creating a beautiful skyline for anyone who visits.

Bodiam Castle in ruins

Whilst Bodiam Castle is still a fascinating example of a medieval castle, it doesn’t hold quite the same impact as it once did. Unfortunately, this is because the interior of the castle has fallen into ruin.

Thankfully, those who are interested in the basic structure of the castle will find that the basic dimensions of the castle, in particular functional rooms such as the cellar and kitchen can still be identified.

So much so, that you can even create a floor plan of the layout of the castle, just using the remains to figure out how it would have once looked.
Not only this, but there is also a grand hall, a chapel and an antechamber, as well as the accommodation for the family that called Bodiam Castle their home. This meant that the castle was split into areas that were solely for the family and their high status visitors, as well as some areas that were for the use of the staff and the servants.

Rooms that would have been found within the castle include a Chapel, Household Apartments, Pantry, Kitchen, Lord’s Hall, Buttery, Chamber, North-West Tower (including a prison).

There would have also have been a Great Hall, which would have been the social hub of the castle, where the Lord would have entertained his guests.
The National Trust has taken on some restoration work on the ruins, adding new roofs to the towers and the gatehouse. During 1970, the moat was drained during excavations.


Very little is known about Aesop’s origins. Amorium, Phrygia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Samos, Athens, Sardis, Thrace and many other places have been suggested by different authors as his place of birth. Some claim that his name may be derived from “Aethiopian”, a word often used by the ancient Greeks to refer to any dark-skinned people from the African interior. His date of birth is likewise uncertain, but the best estimate may be around 620 BCE. According to some medieval traditions, he was extremely ugly and deformed, although there is no contemporary evidence to that effect.

Like his birth, the rest of his life is also shrouded in obscurity. He is said to have lived for some time as a slave to a man called Xanthus in Samos. At some stage he must have been freed (possibly by his second master, Jadon, as a reward for his learning and wit) as he is later recorded as conducting the public defense of a demagogue on the Greek island of Samos. Other reports have him subsequently living at the court of Croesus, the king of Lydia, where he met (and apparently impressed with his wit) Solon and the Seven Sages of Greece, and he was also said to have visited Athens during the reign of Peisistratus.

According to the historian Herodotus, Aesop met with a violent death at the hands of the inhabitants of Delphi, although various different reasons for this have been put forward. The best estimate for his date of death is around 560 BCE.


Note: The Plays within brackets are no longer extant in full.

c850 Homer possibly active.

640 Stesichorus. Lyric Poet. (died 555)

630/612 Sappho born. Poet (died c570)

c600 Anaximender. Philosopher (died 540)

late 5th cent Cratylus. Philosopher

late 5th cent Thales. Philosopher

c585 Anaximenes. Philosopher (died c525)

580-572 Pythagoras. Mathematician. Philosopher (died 500-490)

570 Xenophanes, Philosopher(died 480)

563 Anacreon. Lyric Poet (died 478)

c560 Ibycus. Greek Lyric poet

560-527 Tyranny of Peisistratus (died 527)

535 The first City Dionysia contest. Thespis wins the prize.

c535 Heraclitus. Philosopher (died 475)

c525/4 Aeschylus born. Dramaturg. (died 455/4)

524 Choerilus (Dramaturg) exhibited. All plays lost. (150 tragedies thirteen times winner of 1st Prize)

522 Pindar born. Poet (died 443)

511 Phrynicus of Miletus. Dramaturg First tragic victory. Pupil of Thespis.
(The Capture of Miletus). In 476 (Phoenissae) introduced women onto the stage, (played by men.)

c500 Anaxagoras born. Philosopher (died c428)

c500 Melanippides. Dithyrambic Poet

c500 Pratinas. Dramaturg. Introduced the satyr plays

early 5th cent. Parmenides. Philosopher

498 Pindar’s earliest poem (The Tenth Pythian Ode)

496 Sophocles born . Dramaturg.(died 406)

495 Pericles born. Athenian politician. General. (died 429)

c490 Ion of Chios. Poet. Philosopher. Dramaturg (died c424)

c490 Zeno. Philosopher (died c430)

c490 Herodotus born. “Father of History.” (died between 430 and 420)

c490 Empedocles. Philosopher (died 430)

c490 Protagoras. Philosopher (died 420)

490 Athenian victory over the Persians at Marathon.

487 First ostracism held in Athens.

485 Aeschylus’ first victory

480 Xerxes invades Greece

479 Greek victories at Plataea and Mycale

478 Foundation of Delian League

476 Pindar’s First Olympian Ode

472 Aeschylus’ “Rhineus”, “Persae” (first surviving play) “Glaucus” and “Prometheus Bound.”

470 Pindar’s First Pythian Ode

469 Socrates born. Philosopher (died 399)

468 Sophocles’ first exhibition (and victory over Aeschylus)

467 Aeschylus’ “Laius,” “Oedipus,” “Seven Against Thebes” and “Sphinx”

c465 Prodicus. Philosopher (died 415)

463? Aeschylus’ “Suppliant Women.”

461-451 War between Athens and Sparta. (First Peloponnesian War)

c460 Hippias of Elis. Philosopher. (died c399)

c460 Aeschylus’ “Prometheus Bound”

458-7 Building of Long Walls from Athens to Piraeus.

458 Aeschylus’ “Oresteia” and “Proteus.”

457? 445? Aristophanes born. Dramaturg. Comedy. (died 385)

455 Euripides’ First production (at City Dionysia)

454 Treasury of the Delian League is moved from Delos to Athens.

454/3 Kratinos’ 1st Victory. Comedy. (The Bottle?

c450 Praxilla of Sicyon. Lyric Poet

450 Alcibiades born. Athenian General. (died 404)

c450 Sophocles’ “Women of Trachis”

c507? Bacchylides of Ceos. Lyric Poet.(flourished c 467)

445 Thirty year peace between Athens and Sparta

445 Antisthenes (Socrates’ most devoted student) born (died 360)

445-426 Herodotus of Halicarnassus active

443 Ostracism of Thucydides beginning of Pericles’ supremacy.

441 Euripides’ first victory

c440 Leucippus. Philosopher (floruit)

c440 Democritus. Philosopher (floruit)

438 Euripides’ “Alcestis” (Cressae, Alcmaeon in Psophis, Telephus)

436 Isocrates. Rhetorician (died 338)

435/4 Kalias. Dramaturg (Kyklopes)

432 Parthenon completed (built by Iktinos and Kalikrates)

431 Start of second Peloponnesian War

431 Thucydides begins his “History.”

431 Euripides’ “Medea.” (Philoctetes, Dictys, Thersitae)

431/0 Kratinos’ (Dionysalexandros)

c431 Xenophon born (died 355)

c430 Euripides’ “Heracleidae”

429 Sophocles’ Oedipus the King (first produced)

428/7 Aristophanes’ (Daitales)

428 Xenophon’s “Athinaion Politeia”

428? Publication of Herodotus’ “Histories”

427 First Athenian expedition to Sicily

427 Aristophanes’ “Banqueters”

426 Sophocles’ “Oedipus Rex” and “Trachiniae”

426 Aristophanes’ “Babylonians.”

426 Chaerophon asks Delphi in Corinth if Socrates was wisest man. Delphi replies “yes.”

c426/5 Euripides’ “Andromache”

425/4 Kratinos. Dramaturg (Deliades)

425 Aristophanes’ “Acharnians.”

425 Cleon dominant in Athens. Date of birth uncertain. Died 422

424/3 Kratinos 1st Prize with (Pytine)

424 Thucydides exiled from Athens

424/3 Aristophanes (Holkades) Ameipsias (Konnos)

423/2 Aristophanes (Proagon) Leukon (Presbeis)

422 Brasidas and Cleon (Generals) killed in northern Greece

c422/3 Euripides’ “Supplices”

422/1 Eupolis. Dramaturg (Marikas, Kolakes))

421/0 Pherekrates. Dramaturg (Agrioi)

421 Peace of Nikias between Athens and Sparta

416 Athenians attack Melos and enslave inhabitants.

416 Erroneously extrapolated date of Plato’s “Symposium.” Plato would only be ten years old. He published it in the 380s.

416 Agathon wins tragic victory at Lenaia.

416/5 Phrynicus. Dramaturg (Monotropos)

415 Athenian expedition to Sicily.

415 Euripides’ “Trojan Women” (Sisyphus, Alexander, Palamedes)

415/4 Aristophanes’ “Birds,” (Amphiaraus, produced by Philonides) Ameipsia (Komastai)

c414 Euripides’ “Iphigeneia in Tauris.”

413 Athenian expedition in Sicily devastated.

412? 404? Diogenes of Sinope. Philosopher (died 323)

411 Aristophanes’ “Lysistrata” “Thesmophoriazousae.”

410 Democracy restored in Athens

c410 Euripides’ “Phoenician Women”

410-387 Andocides and Lysias speech writers.

409 Sophocles’ “Philoctetes.” 1 st Prize.

c409 Euripides’ “Phoenissae (Oenomaus, Chrysippus)

408 Aristophanes’ first “Plutus.”

408/7 Aristophanes (Gerytades)

407-6 Alcibiades returns from exile

406/5 Phrynicus (Mousai) Platon (Kleophon)- Dramaturgs.

405 Euripides’ “Bacchae” and “Iphigeneia in Aulis.” Posthumously produced

404 End of war between Athens and Sparta. Rule of the 30 tyrants (for eight months)

401 Sophocles’ “Oedipus at Colonus.”

c400 Timotheus. Athenian General from 378 to 356. Imperialist. (died 354)

400 Ephoros. Historian (died 330)

399 Trial and execution of Socrates. Plato leaves Athens.

397-338 Isocrates, educator and writer active

395 Publication of Thucydides’ “History.”

395 Antimachus, epic poet, active.

395/4 Aristomenes. Dramaturg (Dionysus)

395-393 Athens rebuilds her Long Walls.

392 Aristophanes’ “Ecclesiazousae.”

390-354 Xenophon, historian and essayist, active. “Anabasis”

(post)388 Aristophanes’ (Aiolosikon and Cocalus) produced by his son, Araros

389/8 Alkaios (Pasiphae), Nikophon (Adonis), Nikochares (Lakones), Dramaturgs.

388 Aristophanes’ second “Plutus”

387 Plato founds the Academy.

387/6 Aristophanes’ “Kokalos” (non extant)

384 Aristotle born. (Died 322)

384 Demosthenes born. (Died 322)

380 Theopompous (Athenian historian, rhetorician)

367 Aristotle joins the Academy

ca 362 Philemon (Φιλήμων) Comic playwright (died ca 262)

359 Philip II becomes King of Macedon –End of period of the free City States. Macedonian domination and the Hellenistic period begin.

Bitcoin Inspiration

Just like Bitcoin, Cardano uses the UTXO (unspent transaction output) model where the inputs are unspent outputs from previous transactions. However, the network has expanded upon this to employ an extended UTXO model (EUTXO) which offers unique advantages over other accounting models.

Without going too deep into the technicalities of it, the EUTXO model essentially allows the validity of transactions to be checked off-chain before the transaction is sent to the blockchain. This is in contrast to Ethereum Layer 1 which processes transactions all on-chain. Transaction execution costs can be also determined off-chain before transmission which is another unique feature.

Plutus Core will be used to define the parameters of these EUTXO transactions and compile the code developed for smart contracts. A Plutus Application Framework (PAF) will provide easy access to services and applications running on the network with full web browser interoperability.

“Applications written on top of the PAF automatically provide an HTTP and WebSocket interface that can be used to interact with the application from the web browser.”

Cardano launched native tokens in February’s ‘Mary’ upgrade to allow users to create uniquely defined custom tokens and carry out transactions with them. Plutus will expand on current token capabilities, vastly improving minting policies which will be beneficial for NFTs which may need time locks.

Simply, history | sed 's/.[ ]*.[0-9]*.[ ]*//' | uniq | grep -i "heroku"

the sed will remove the any [spaces][numbers][spaces] at the start of each line

history | grep -i "heroku" | sed 's/.[ ]*.[0-9]*.[ ]*//' | uniq

Addition to answer by @devav2

Clear/nullify the history timestamp environment variable

Export the following command,

export HISTCONTROL=ignoredups --> This will ignore the duplicates that are executed in sequence

The timestamp can be suppressed (or modified) on a per-command basis:

If the HISTTIMEFORMAT variable is set and not null, its value is used as a format string for strftime(3) to print the time stamp associated with each displayed history entry. No time stamps are printed otherwise.

That just leaves the line numbers, which can't be suppressed, but which are padded to a fixed width (for line numbers < 100,000):

X Marks the Spot - A Nintendo and Microsoft console timeline

DoA3 wasn't a port, was fully made for the ground to the OTL Xbox, so would be here.

Reminder. MS didn't got that Nvidia GPU till much later, they could Use ArtX-Ati Design pretty Easily and buffing it with ATI help, unless Nvidia is less than an ass and allow easier production of NVA2.

3DS Fantasy Life says hi but yeah, Gold Chronicle sounds much better(more if they use the name Gold for the premium version of the online service)

Very nice starting writing up buddy, set very well the ideas and plans for the TL.


alright, so they'd just buff ATI's GPU if that's the case

my mistake lol, I'm just used to every Japanese fighting game from that time having an arcade version from the get-go, though I suppose due to butterflies, DoA3 could have an arcade port ITTL

and Fantasy Life doesn't sound that stupid to me, its simplicity works IMO



honestly idk what to even do with Sega ITTL

having Microsoft or Sony acquire them is a concept that's too predictable, but I have a hard time only seeing two major consoles on the market


honestly idk what to even do with Sega ITTL

having Microsoft or Sony acquire them is a concept that's too predictable, but I have a hard time only seeing two major consoles on the market

Make them stay as OTL, maybe was for the best, sammy was the best boss among japanese third parties( others would have just dismantle Sega) and as say before, that allow the triforce arcade board to happen early and a net positive Sega and Nintendo.


The Triforce arcade board is still a collaboration between Nintendo and Sega, but instead of having Namco as the third collaborator, it will instead be Capcom, and terms of tech it's more powerful than OTL's Triforce due to it being based on the Nintendo X from TTL, which is in between OTL's Xbox and GameCube in terms of power. The Triforce is first launched in 2002, though the first game to come out for it doesn't release until 2003.

Nintendo also decides to license out the Triforce arcade board to other developers in the arcade business, but with the caveat that if those games came to consoles, they would be Nintendo exclusives. It is most notably used for F-Zero AX (still developed by Sega), Wave Race Typhoon (a fourth installment in the Wave Race series developed by Nintendo), Project Gotham Racing 2 (still released in 2003 and developed by Bizarre Creations), Dead or Alive 4 (Team Ninja licenses out the board and uses it to developed DoA4 earlier), and a variety of arcade ports handled by Capcom for Nintendo and Microsoft's first-party lineup, most notably Mario Kart: Double Dash (which butterflies away the Mario Kart Arcade GP games) and Halo.

And in addition to all of that, Rareware show interest in potentially making a third Killer Instinct game using the Triforce board, believing it would be a perfect fit for the franchise. Nintendo is initially unsure of those, as Killer Instinct Gold didn't sell well enough on the N64, so they decide to test the waters by first releasing Killer Instinct: 10th Anniversary Collection, which has KI1's arcade version, KI1's SNES port, KI2, and KI Gold all sold in one bundle released in 2004, each fitted with online play. It ends up selling better than Nintendo expected, and they decide to greenlight a fully-fledged third installment in the series as a result of it.



  • Nintendo/Microsoft
    • Sales numbers of the Nintendo X have been incredibly satisfactory the online functionality, more powerful architecture in comparison to the PS2, and constantly-growing first party lineup has done wonders for the system, having sold 13 million units in seven months.
    • The Triforce arcade board is first unveiled here, with F-Zero AX and Wave Race Typhoon being the primary titles used to showcase it. While those two games will launch only in arcades, Nintendo also announces that they will be receiving console ports on the Nintendo X. They also announce that Capcom will be developing arcade ports of first-party titles, the first of which is Bungie's Halo.
    • Returning games from E3 2001's showcase are Super Mario Sunshine, Metroid Prime, Eternal Darkness, Battlefield 1942, Splinter Cell and Super Smash Bros. Melee, with the latter featuring the unexpected reveals of Konami's Solid Snake and Sega's Sonic the Hedgehog as the latest fighters to join the series, and the first third-party fighters in Smash (ITTL, the extra development time given to Melee in order for an online mode to be implemented also allowed Sakurai to add Snake, Sonic, and Wario into the game).
    • Perfect Dark Crisis received a full reveal, being the sequel to the N64 game Perfect Dark, and this time coming with online multiplayer. There will also be a focus on its single-player campaign, featuring CGI cinematics that Rareware touts as being a step forward for storytelling in games, though time will tell if this actually ends up changing games or becomes a mark of hubris on their part. EDIT: Rareware also shows off Donkey Kong Racing, which doesn't end up being cancelled like in OTL, and also comes with online play.
    • Tecmo announces a Rygar remake and a new Tecmo Bowl with online play, while also showing another trailer for Itagaki's Ninja Gaiden, this time showing gameplay resembling the previous year's very popular Devil May Cry. They also announce that the next Dead or Alive game will be utilizing the Triforce arcade board, becoming the first third-party developer to build a title of their own with the board.
    • The Legend of Zelda: Wind Waker is revealed. Visually it shares the same color palette and visual style of OTL's Wind Waker, but uses realistic body proportions for the characters, rather than the Ghilbi-esque body designs. As such, it doesn't receive the same level of backlash that it did in OTL, though there are still some complaints over the visual style not being more like the recently-released Morrowind's.
    • Capcom announces another exclusive IP from Hideki Kamiya, Viewiful Joe, due for release in 2003. However, when Shinji Mikami is asked about the rumors of Resident Evil 4 being a Nintendo X exclusive, he refuses to comment and says that they'll "wait and see". Other new IPs revealed at Nintendo/Microsoft's E3 include Beyond Good & Evil by Ubisoft and Sega's Billy Hatcher. LucasArts also announces Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic, an RPG set in the distant past of Star Wars developed by BioWare.
    • EDIT: Capcom also announces Dino Crisis 3 as an exclusive to the Nintendo X, with ports of Dino Crisis 1 and 2 being scheduled for release later that year. In a similar vein, Sega announced Jet Set Radio Future and Panzer Dragoon Orta as Nintendo X exclusives as well, the former of which also came bundled with a port of the original Jet Set Radio, and the latter was preceded by a collection of the first three Panzer Dragoon games. They also announced ports of Shenmue I and II, due for release later that fall, and provide a first look at the next mainline Sonic game AKA Sonic Heroes. Hudson Soft reveals Bomberman Online: 2003, a rerelease of the Dreamcast title for the Nintendo X with added content, which includes appearances from Nintendo characters like Mario, Link, Samus, Kirby, etc.
    • Lastly, Nintendo announces their most valued announcement for last - Enix's Dragon Quest VIII will be releasing exclusively on the Nintendo X. While reception to this is muted in the west and even criticized by people unfamiliar with the series, in Japan it sparks a sharp rise in sales for the Nintendo X.
    • Overall the show is positively-received, though there's some disappointment over the previously-announced Mario Kart not being present.
    • Not wanting online functionality to be solely taken by Nintendo/Microsoft, Sony announce a glut of games emphasizing online play, such as new IPs Killzone and S.O.C.O.M., Squaresoft's Final Fantasy Online, and Gran Turismo 4, the first in the series featuring online functionality. They also announce that Namco's Tekken 4 is being delayed to make room for online functionality, something that Namco only decided at the last minute after heavy lobbying from Sony. EDIT: Everybody's Golf 4 and Twisted Metal: World Tour (meant to reflect the game's worldwide online functionality) are also announced, despite 989 Studios having not even put the latter game into preproduction.
    • Squaresoft, in addition to showing off Final Fantasy Online, also shows a final trailer for Kingdom Hearts' western release, featuring the same star-studded voice cast from OTL's games. After this, they and Sony announce that Sony has bought a 51% stake in Squaresoft, thus making them a subsidiary of Sony, albeit not fully-owned. Sony felt pressured to make its own acquisition after Microsoft and Nintendo agreed to a join ownership of Rareware, and with Squaresoft in financial woes after the failure of Spirits Within, they offered to acquire them fully. EDIT: As a result of this, Final Fantasy and Kingdom Hearts become full PlayStation-exclusive series, and Sony pushes some of Squaresoft's lesser-known franchises as well, such as Front Mission and Parasite Eve.
    • As for other first-party titles, Insomniac and Sucker Punch show off Ratchet & Clank and Sly Cooper respectively, Team Soho reveals The Getaway, Japan Studio puts focus onto Ape Escape 2, Psygnosis announces a new IP in the form of Snowblight (an IP original to this timeline), a first-person shooter set in a post-apocalyptic world thrown into a new set of ice ages, EDIT: and Level-5 showcases Dark Chronicle.
    • When Sony is asked if they plan on releasing a more powerful version of the PS2, they say that they have no interest in doing so due to the stellar sales numbers of the current model, but said that things could change if sales slow down significantly enough.
    • On the third-party side of things, Koei shows off Dynasty Warriors 4, Rockstar reveals Grand Theft Auto: Vice City and Red Dead Revolver, Konami announces Silent Hill 3, and Activision brings Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 4, their annual Pro Skater title. The latter ends up disappointing some people, as it wouldn't have online functionality, though Activision announces that 2003's title will have that feature. EDIT: Other noteworthy third-party showcases were Eidos with Tomb Raider: Angel of Darkness and Hitman 2: Silent Assassin, Nippon Ichi's Disgaea: Hour of Darkness, and Namco with Venus & Braves.
    • EDIT: Overall, while the reception is generally positive, Sony's showing is more or less considered to be a step down from Nintendo/Microsoft's conference, as it was much less of a blowout in comparison to their conference, with the answer Sony gave on a more powerful PS2 being a mark of disappointment for many.


    To being Honest I doubt would change Sony plans that much, besides maybe pushing Online more on PS2(like GC at times was an afterthought) . If anything would be much like OTL baring the butterflies.


    Snowblight is a first-person shooter developed by Psygnosis and published Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation 2. Inspired by the gameplay of Perfect Dark and Halo, Snowblight is set in a post-apocalyptic earth ravaged by a nuclear winter, where the aftermath of nuclear conflict caused lots of dust to enter the stratosphere and shifted the oceans, all of which have been frozen over. The roman calendar and all forms of dating have been abandoned, and there is little to no form of structured civilization. The world before the nuclear winter is known as the "Warmer World". The main form of transportation used by people are Nomads - oil-using vehicles that are a cross between automobiles and snowmobiles. Because of this, the people with the most power in this post-apocalyptic world are Barons landowners who mine and sell oil, with their workers being provided with homes and basic necessities in exchange for hard labor. Simply put, it's something like Mad Max, but with snow instead of a desert.

    The main character of Snowblight is Vincent Kessler, an astronaut piloting the spaceship Valhalla who was lost in space after the nuclear war destroyed NASA. Faced with the possibility of never returning back to Earth, he placed himself in suspended animation and the Valhalla's AI, I.R.I.S. (Interstellar Relay and Intelligence System) pilot it until they could return to earth. I.R.I.S. is the only company he's had for years, and despite being an A.I., there are hints of romance between the two. However, when they arrive back on Earth, the Valhalla and I.R.I.S. are seized by the Round Table, a cooperative group of six Barons and their respective factions who see his ship and capture it in hope of studying it and using it to mass-produce space traveling vehicles and rebuild humanity on other planets with their dictatorial terms. The six factions are:

    • The Brigands - The first faction, which is the most unorganized and least powerful of the six factions, and situated in the ruins of St. Louis. They are mostly compromised of riffraff that the five other factions look down upon, and own the smallest amount of oil-mining territory. They are the ones who initially capture the Valhalla and sell its parts to the five other factions, as they are running hard on currency and have otherwise been losing members due to the poor state the faction finds itself in. Their baron is Snow Mann, a brutish man with a high tolerance for the cold, hence his name.
    • The Apostles - The second faction, which is located in the remains of Houston, Texas. They are a group of spiritual monk-warriors who worship the relics of the Warmer World, and have the largest collection of relics and technology from the Warmer World. However, they lack the technological prowess and know how to actually make use of these relics, but their refusal to hand over any of them puts them at odds with the five other factions. Their baron is Pope William, a blind man who utilizes traps and torture devices instead of actually fighting Kessler head-on.
    • The Machinists - The third faction, which only consists of six fully human scientists, as the majority of their forces are made up of biomechanical lifeforms created by fusing human bodies and organs with cybernetic enhancements, including a neural chip that connects to the baron of the faction, The Programmer. He is missing his lower half, and thus uses a set of spider-like legs to move around. Inside his brain is the main neural firewall, which allows him to connect to and command the other members of the Machines, save for the six fully human scientists. This faction is located in the ruins of San Francisco, utilizing technology found in the Silicon Valley's ruins.
    • The Abominations - The fourth faction, a group of humans who live in the areas most stricken with nuclear waste, and have taken to biological experimenting on themselves in order to hasten their evolutions. As a result, they are mutated and grotesque in appearance, while being incapable of speaking any known human language, instead communicating with seemingly-random sounds. Their baron is Leviathan, a colossal eldritch-like mutant who is a cannibal and the only member of the species who can speak a human language. They are found in the former Los Angeles area, which was the first US city attacked by nuclear weaponry.
    • The Tunnelers - The fifth faction, who mostly resides underground and can see in the dark better than the other factions. They are known for ambushing lone travelers above ground and stealing their belongings, and have a vast network of tunnels that they use for travel. They are also the most secretive of all the factions, not even revealing where their oil territories are. Their baron is Plutus, who utilizes a modified mining exo-skeleton when in combat, and providing him with more protection from attacks and cave-ins. They do not have any specific region, but Plutus is confronted under what was once Las Vegas.
    • The Harvesters - The sixth and final faction, situated at the foot of Mount St. Helens. They are the most brutal and combat-heavy faction, as well as the most powerful and the de facto leader of the Round Table. Their baron is Dr. Ashland, a scientist with ambitions of colonizing humanity in his own image. However, he's given up on Earth being a habitable enough planet for his rule, and has ambitions of traveling through space and establishing a new society on a faraway planet. After reaching him, it's revealed that he has reprogrammed I.R.I.S. to obey him, and Kessler is forced to fight her in order to survive. Once Kessler defeats I.R.I.S., Ashland then uploads his consciousness to the mainframe of the Valhalla II, rebuilt from the shell of Kessler's ship, but with enough power to travel beyond the known galaxy. In order of prevent the Valhalla II from launching, Kessler fires a missile into Mount St. Helens' crater, and sparks a volcanic eruption that destroys most of the Harvesters' compound and the Valhalla II.

    Snowblight is released on January 31st, 2003. It receives a generally positive reception for its worldbuilding and gameplay, though the ending leaves more questions than answers, and the game itself is generally not as acclaimed as Halo, Perfect Dark, Half-Life, or Metroid Prime, but is still considered to be a solid FPS all in all. The game goes on to ship 3 million copies by the end of 2003 (mostly attributed to the PS2 lacking in FPSes during this time), and 2004 also sees the release of Snowblight: The Oil Wars, a multiplayer-focused expansion adding an online mode, more weapons, vehicles, and difficulty levels, which is considered to be the definitive version of the game, for all intents and purposes.

    Watch the video: Cardano: Plutus Smart Contracts Explained Deep Dive!


  1. Tano

    the bossy message :), in a funny way ...

  2. Ungus

    What do you mean?

  3. Jacobo

    Would like to say a pair of words.

  4. Amoll

    What charming topic

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