British colony in Berlin

British colony in Berlin


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Yesterday's [23rd May 2013's] IHT had this interesting historical news clip in its 100, 75, 50 years ago section. It refers to a British colony in Berlin in 1913 of which Mr. J. W. Louth was apparently the dean.

Before breakfast their Majesties received a deputation from the British colony in Berlin, which presented a loyal address.

Google and Wikipedia aren't much help here.

What British colony are they referring to?


Colony is being used here more in the "biological" sense. Strictly this means a group of individuals of the same species living closely together, but here it's being co-opted to mean a group of individuals of the same nationality living outside their own country but retaining their own culture and society to keep themselves distinct from the native population.


Scramble for Africa

The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa, Conquest of Africa, or the Rape of Africa, [1] [2] was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonization of most of Africa by seven Western European powers during a short period known to historians as the New Imperialism (between 1881 and 1914). The 10 percent of Africa that was under formal European control in 1870 increased to almost 90 percent by 1914, with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia) and Liberia remaining independent.

The Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonization and trade in Africa, is usually referred to as the starting point of the Scramble for Africa. [3] There were considerable political rivalries among the European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century. Partitioning Africa was effected without wars between European nations. [4] In the later years of the 19th century, the European nations transitioned from "informal imperialism" — i.e., exercising military influence and economic dominance — to direct rule, bringing about colonial imperialism. [5]


Soviets blockade West Berlin

One of the most dramatic standoffs in the history of the Cold War begins as the Soviet Union blocks all road and rail traffic to and from West Berlin. The blockade turned out to be a terrible diplomatic move by the Soviets, while the United States emerged from the confrontation with renewed purpose and confidence.

Following World War II, Germany was divided into occupation zones. The United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and, eventually, France, were given specific zones to occupy in which they were to accept the surrender of Nazi forces and restore order. The Soviet Union occupied most of eastern Germany, while the other Allied nations occupied western Germany. The German capital of Berlin was similarly divided into four zones of occupation. Almost immediately, differences between the United States and the Soviet Union surfaced. The Soviets sought huge reparations from Germany in the form of money, industrial equipment, and resources. The Russians also made it clear that they desired a neutral and disarmed Germany. 

The United States saw things in quite a different way. American officials believed that the economic recovery of Western Europe was dependent on a strong, reunified Germany. They also felt that only a rearmed Germany could stand as a bulwark against Soviet expansion into Western Europe. In May 1946, the Americans stopped reparations shipments from their zone to the Soviets. In December, the British and Americans combined their zones the French joined some months later. The Soviets viewed these actions as a threat and issued more demands for a say in the economic future of Germany. On June 22, 1948, negotiations between the Soviets, Americans, and British broke down. On June 24, Soviet forces blocked the roads and railroad lines into West Berlin.

American officials were furious, and some in the administration of President Harry S. Truman argued that the time for diplomacy with the Soviets was over. For a few tense days, the world waited to see whether the United States and Soviet Union would come to blows. In West Berlin, panic began to set in as its population worried about shortages of food, water, and medical aid. The United States response came just two days after the Soviets began their blockade. A massive airlift of supplies into West Berlin was undertaken in what was to become one of the greatest logistical efforts in history. For the Soviets, the escapade quickly became a diplomatic embarrassment. Russia looked like an international bully that was trying to starve men, women, and children into submission. And the successful American airlift merely served to accentuate the technological superiority of the United States over the Soviet Union. On May 12, 1949, the Soviets officially ended the blockade.


Not far from the German governor's palace is the former district office. After Togo's independence in 1960, an additional storey was added. It used to house a naval academy, but now the building is empty. Lome's taxi drivers and vendors use the rooms on the ground floor to take naps during lunchtime.

Architectural reminders of the German colonial era in Togo


Rise of the Planter Class in Pre-Revolutionary Colonial America

The growing prosperity and power of the Southern elite planter system can be traced to the seventeenth century. By the time the American Revolution began, a small group of elite planters managed to consolidate their control from Virginia to the Carolinas. Much of this prosperity and power was based on the profits tied to the protected market of the British mercantile system as well as an ever-growing population of slaves. Elite planters lived better, ate better, and socialized better than their poorer counterparts, developing what historian David Hawke refers to as “opulent plantations.” According to Hawke, “The wide gap between rich and poor in the Chesapeake…had already appeared before the seventeenth century ended.”

Increasing Wealth of the Southern Planter Class

The increasing wealth of the Southern planter class coincided with the rapid growth of port cities and towns, enabling them to send raw materials to England while at the same time ordering luxury items that defined a new class of colonial American aristocrats. Writer Henry Wiencek comments that, “The pride of the planters demanded that no expense be spared to proclaim their status.”

Prior to the American Revolution, an already debt-prone George Washington, for example, ordered a new coach from England. No expense was spared on a carriage that featured only the finest trimmings and made out of the costliest materials.

At the same time, Washington was transforming Mount Vernon into an enviable estate, first with tobacco profits and later with funds from his wheat crop as well as an inheritance. Historian Ira Berlin states that, “Planters took on the airs of English gentlemen…” as they forged “seats of small empires…”

Birth of the First Families in the Pre-Revolution South

Much earlier, the diary of planter William Byrd II demonstrated a life that included civic duties and leisure. Byrd described what he ate everyday, including such selections as boiled beef, roast beef, goose, and mutton. Few poor farmers could afford to sit down at a table to the types of food mentioned by Byrd. His social pursuits, when not tending to his plantation, included much merriment and card playing. Byrd was an educated man who read Greek.

Tobacco and rice, the chief export commodities of the colonial South, received generous subsidies through the mercantile system both were enumerated goods. Historian Oliver M. Dickerson writes that, “Next to tobacco, rice was the most important commercially grown agricultural crop of the continental colonies.” Both became the seeds of fortune that created the great plantation estates and the “First Families” that, ultimately, would rule the South politically.

Slavery Helps to Create Powerful Planter Elites in the South

Slavery, however, made the cultivation of such crops highly profitable. Elite planters possessed the financial means to purchase slaves, frequently reselling slaves to less powerful, fledgling planters. According to Berlin, “Having enslaved black people…the grandees knit themselves together through strategic marriages, carefully crafted business dealings, and elaborate rituals, creating a style of life which awed common folk, and to which lesser planters dared not aspire.”

As the political leaders, the elite planters wrote the slaves codes, beginning with the 1676 Virginia revolt led by Nathaniel Bacon. Slave codes deprived free blacks of their rights and helped to separate slaves from poor whites, many of whom began their colonial experiences as indentured servants. Slave codes were amended throughout the years, giving planters unlimited control over their slaves. Further, slavery became more advantageous as mortality rates decreased, an initial problem with the influx of Africans unaccustomed to the climate and diseases.

Permanence of the Southern Slave System

By the time of the American Revolution, Southern planters identifying with the Patriot cause were powerful enough to ensure that the Jeffersonian phrase, “all men are created equal” did not apply to people of color. After the Revolution, the same elites ensured that any hint of slave emancipation was quashed. Slavery was an integral component of the plantation system, ensuring both prosperity and political power.

The ante-bellum planter class was rooted in pre-revolutionary conditions that in large measure owed its success to the profitable British mercantile system. This emerging success, based on agricultural profits, coincided with the growing importation of slaves. By the time of the Revolution, a distinct Southern planter class formed sectional goals that would eventually conflict with the an industrializing North.

Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries Of Slavery In North America (The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998)
Oliver M. Dickerson, The Navigation Acts And The American Revolution (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1951)
David Freeman Hawke, Everyday Life In Early America (Harper & Row, 1988)
William A. Link and Marjorie Spruill Wheeler, The South In The History Of The Nation, Volume One (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1999)
Henry Wiencek, An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America (Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2003)


The Berlin Conference

The Berlin Conference can be best understood as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa. This British coined the term sometime in 1884, and it has since been used to describe the twenty-plus years when the various European powers explored, divided, conquered and began to exploit virtually the entire African continent. European powers were slow to realise the benefits of claiming land in Africa and had mainly kept to coastal colonies. However in 1884–5 the Scramble for Africa had truly began in earnest when thirteen European countries and the United States met in Berlin to agree to the rules dividing Africa. The outcome of the conference was the General Act of the Berlin Conference.

Prior to the conference, European diplomacy treated African indigenous people in the same manner as they treated New World natives, forming trade realtions with tribal chiefs. This can seen in examples such as the Portuguese trading with the Kingdom of the Kongo. With the exception of the trading posts along the coasts, the continent was essentially ignored. This changed as a result of King Leopold of Belgium’s desire for personal glory and riches and b y the mid-19th century, Africa was considered ripe for exploration, trade, and settlement.

In 1876, Belgium’s King Leopold II announced his intent to fund an exploration of the Congo region, and in 1879 Leopold sent Sir Henry Morton Stanley to the area. In the same year, the French began building a railway east from Dakar, hoping to tap potentially huge Sahelian markets. That year France also joined Great Britain in taking financial control of Egypt.

From 1879 to 1885, Stanley went to the Congo as an envoy from Léopold with the secret mission to organise what would become known as the Congo Free State, a mercantile enterprise in the Congo. French intelligence had discovered Leopold’s plans, and France was quick to engage in its own colonial exploration. French naval officer Pierre de Brazza was dispatched to central Africa, traveled into the western Congo basin, and raised the French flag over the newly founded Brazzaville in 1881, in what is currently the Republic of Congo. To add to this, Portugal, had a long history in the are through its trade and treaties with the Kongo Empire in the area through its treaties with the Kongo Empire which in essence became a proxy state of Portugal. It quickly made a treaty with its old ally, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, on 26 February 1884 to block off the Congo Society’s access to the Atlantic.

By the early 1880s European interest in Africa had increased dramatically. Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin (1874–77) removed the last bit of terra incognita from European maps of the continent, thereby delineating the rough areas of British, Portuguese, French, and Belgian control. The powers raced to push these rough boundaries to their furthest limits and eliminating any local minor rulers which might prove troublesome to European competitive diplomacy.

France moved to occupy Tunisia, one of the last of the Barbary Pirate states, under the pretext of another Islamic terror and piracy incident. French claims by Pierre de Brazza were quickly solidified with the French taking control of today’s Republic of the Congo in 1881 and also Guinea in 1884. This, in turn, partly convinced Italy to become part of the Triple Alliance, thereby upsetting Germany's Otto van Bismarck’s carefully laid out plans with Italy and forcing Germany to become involved. In 1882, realizing the geopolitical extent of Portuguese control on the coasts, but seeing penetration by France eastward across Central Africa toward Ethiopia, the Nile, and the Suez Canal, Britain saw its vital trade route through Egypt and its Indian Empire threatened.

Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913. Image source

Under the pretext of the collapsed Egyptian financial structure and a subsequent riot in Cairo which saw hundreds of Europeans and British subjects murdered or injured, the United Kingdom intervened in nominally Ottoman Egypt, which, in turn, ruled over the Sudan and what would later become British Somaliland.

Owing to the upsetting of Bismarck’s carefully laid balance of power in European politics caused by Leopold’s gamble and subsequent European race for colonies, Germany felt compelled to act and started launching African expeditions of its own, which frightened both British and French statesmen. Hoping to quickly soothe this brewing conflict, King Leopold II was able to convince France and Germany that common trade in Africa was in the best interests of all three countries. Under support from the British and the initiative of Portugal, Otto von Bismarck, German Chancellor, called on representatives of Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (union until 1905), the Ottoman Empire, and the United States to take part in an international conference in Berlin to work out a common policy for colonisation and trade in Africa and the drawing of colonial state boundaries in the official partition of Africa. The United States, however, did not actually participate in the conference both because it had an inability to take part in territorial expeditions as well as a sense of not giving the conference further legitimacy. The Berlin Conference spanned almost four months of deliberations, from 15 November 1884 to 26 February 1885. By the end of the Conference the European powers had neatly divided Africa up amongst themselves, drawing the boundaries of Africa much as we know them today.


Literature from the Post-Colonial Era:

With the end of World War II the British Empire was broken, the jewels from its Imperial Crown were gaining independence one country at a time(Greenblatt 1832). The writers of these colonies started to create their own works of literature in the English language (Greenblatt 1832). This was the most dramatic geographic shift of English literature in history (Greenblatt 1832). The work of these writers hybridized their local traditions with their experiences of their time in the Britsh Empire (Greenblatt 1832). Some examples of these post-colonial writers are: Wole Soyinka, Nadine Gordimer, Derek Walcott, V.S. Naipul, and J.M. Coetzee, all of which were winners of the Nobel Prize (Greenblatt 1832). Post colonial literature dealt with many issues some common themes would be: The Empire’s effects on a colony’s way of life, how one who was educated in the British Tradition related to his previous generation, or other experiences that resulted from the Empire’s influence.


130 years ago: carving up Africa in Berlin

In 1885 European leaders met at the infamous Berlin Conference to divide Africa and arbitrarily draw up borders that exist to this day.

The map on the wall in the Reich Chancellery in Berlin was five meters (16.4 feet) tall. It showed Africa with rivers, lakes, a few place names and many white spots. When the Berlin Conference came to an end on February 26, 1885, after more than three months of deliberation, there were still large swathes of Africa on which no European had ever set foot.

Representatives of 13 European states, the United States of America and the Ottoman Empire converged on Berlin at the invitation of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to divide up Africa among themselves "in accordance with international law." Africans were not invited to the meeting.

The Berlin Conference led to a period of heightened colonial activity by the European powers. With the exception of Ethiopia and Liberia, all the states that make up present day Africa were parceled out among the colonial powers within a few years after the meeting. Lines of longitude and latitude, rivers and mountain ranges were pressed into service as borders separating the colonies. Or one simply placed a ruler on the map and drew a straight line. Many historians, such as Olyaemi Akinwumi from Nasarawa State University in Nigeria, see the conference as the crucible for future inner African conflicts.

French caricature (from 1885): German chancelor Bismarck divides the African continent among the colonial powers

"In African Studies, many of us believe that the foundation for present day crises in Africa was actually laid by the 1884/85 Berlin Conference. The partition was done without any consideration for the history of the society," Akinwumi told DW.

Traditional boundaries not considered

New borders were drawn through the territories of every tenth ethnic group. Trade routes were cut, because commerce with people outside one's colony was forbidden. Studies have shown that societies through which new frontiers were driven would later be far more likely to suffer from civil war or poverty.

"The conference did irreparable damage to the continent. Some countries are still suffering from it to this day," Akinwumi said.

In many countries, such as Cameroon, the Europeans rode roughshod over local communities and their needs, said Michael Pesek, a researcher in African colonial history at the University of Erfurt. But historians, he explained, were now less inclined than they were to regard the arbitrary redrawing of Africa's borders as the root cause of conflicts in postcolonial Africa.

"People had learnt to live with borders that often only existed on paper. Borders are important when interpreting Africa's geopolitical landscape, but for people on the ground they have little meaning."

Scared to re-open Pandora's Box

In the 1960s, as African countries gained their independence, African politicians could have changed the colonial borders. But they desisted from doing so.

"A large majority of politicians said around 1960 'if we do that we will open up Pandora's Box'," Pesek said. They were probably right. Looking at all the problems Africa has had over the last 80 years, there have been numerous conflicts within states but hardly any between states.

When examining African conflicts, the colonial power that occupied a particular tract of land - the Belgians, French, British or Germans - is less relevant than the significance of belonging to specific ethnic groups which colonial powers often pitted against each other.

Ethnic allegiances were far more open and flexible in the 19th century than they are today, Pesek said. In pre-colonial Rwanda, the Hutu and Tutsi were social groups and it was possible to switch from one to the other. It was colonial rule that cemented the division of the population, of which one of the consequences was the 1994 genocide.

African rulers and people had no say in the division of their continent

In 2010 - on the 125th anniversary of the Berlin Conference, representatives from many African states in Berlin called for reparations for the colonial era. The arbitrary division of the continent among European powers, which ignored African laws, culture, sovereignty and institutions, was a crime against humanity, they said in a statement. They called for the funding of monuments at historic sites, the return of land and other resources which had been stolen, the restitution of cultural treasures and recognition that colonialism and the crimes committed under it were crimes against humanity.

But nothing has come of all this. The historians from Nigeria and Germany are not surprised. "There is much talk of reparations for the slave trade and the Holocaust. But little mention is made of the crimes committed by the European colonial powers during the hundred years or more they spent in Africa," said Pesek.

Olyaemi Akinwumi doesn't believe there will ever be any reparations, of any sort shape or form.

DW recommends


For much of the 19th century, Europeans occupied footholds in African port cities and relied on African middlemen and trade networks to bring trade goods and raw materials to the coast. Before the 19th century the most valuable elements of this trade had included slaves. But the English abolished the slavery in their lands in the 1830s earlier the US Constitution abolished the import of slaves after 1808 even though slavery itself remained legal and some smuggling in slaves from Africa continued. As the 19th century moved along, European interest in African materials expanded to include items like palm oil as a lubricant for the machinery employed by the industrial revolution. But in the late 19th century the European countries negotiated a partition of African territory among themselves (without Africans present) at a conference in Berlin in late 1884-early 1885. Agreements in hand, the countries proceeded to make good on their claims essentially to move up the rivers, trade routes and trade networks to create a greater European presence while eliminating many local African economic arrangements.

But what should you do once you asserted your claim to territory? Specifically, how should you govern it? The British appraoch was called indirect rule and was applied to all of Nigeria including southeastern Nigeria.

The problems of colonial governance in this period are striking. Contemplate the differences in the cultural values of the European and the colonized. Consider the differences in power between the two groups. Consider the differences in what each group sought from the other out of their relationship. Indirect rule was the plan to use existing tribal structures and traditions as conduits for establishing rules and regulations while English officials worked behind the scenes and could exercise a veto power. In some cases the British designated a person to act as "chief" in settings where there was no clearly hierarchical structure in place. This was not the only approach to colonial rule. The French employed direct rule--the idea that--because of these differences--European officials should call the shots for themselves by establishing and administering the rules and regulations for their African colonial subjects.

Study Guide: The two documents included for this issue discuss English indirect rule and include a section on French direct rule as a comparison. The first reflects the ideas used in Nigeria which are part of the colonial era background to Biafra while the second provides you with a contrast--how else could you organize and run a colony? The French had their answer.


Assorted References

The earliest human remains found in Portugal are Neanderthal-type bones from Furninhas. A distinct culture first emerged in the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) middens of the lower Tagus valley, dated about 5500 bce . Neolithic (New Stone Age)

Neighbouring Portugal acquired independence in 1668 after revolt and war protracted by the stubborn determination of Philip IV to maintain his patrimony. This small country had suffered since 1580 from its Spanish connection. Resentment at the loss of part of Brazil and most of…

…the Távoras, (1758–59), event in Portuguese history that enabled the Marquis de Pombal, chief minister to King Joseph I, to crush the higher nobility and the Jesuits, who had opposed him.

In Portugal, Pombal, the rebuilder of post-earthquake Lisbon, was motivated chiefly by the need to restore vitality to a country with a pioneering maritime past. Leopold of Tuscany was able to draw on a rich humanist tradition and civic pride. Everywhere the preferences of the ruler…

Meanwhile, in neighbouring Portugal, António de Oliveira Salazar, a professor of economics, had been made finance minister after a military coup d’état in 1926 and, although he had resigned soon afterward, he had been recalled in 1928. After reorganizing the Portuguese budget, in 1932 he was offered the…

…into three phases: Spanish and Portuguese Dutch and English and French. The Spanish and Portuguese period began with the voyages in the early 1520s of Ferdinand Magellan and, after his death, his crew members. Later discoveries included the Solomon Islands, the Marquesas, and possibly New Guinea, all by the Spaniard…

Portuguese Blue Shirts, who called themselves “national syndicalists,” regarded systematic violence against leftists to be “revolutionary.” During the Spanish Civil War, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and German fascists joined forces to defeat the Popular Front, a coalition of liberals, socialists, communists, and anarchists who had been…

The Salazar regime in Portugal, using the Italian legislation as its model, outlawed the Trade Union Federation and all leftist unions, made corporatist unions compulsory for workers, and declared strikes illegal—all of which contributed to a decline in real wages. Croatian, Russian, Argentine, Brazilian, and Chilean fascism also proposed…

…for the eventual bequest of Portugal to the Habsburgs after the eventual death of King Sebastian (who was then still a child) with the help of his sister Catherine, grandmother of Sebastian and regent of Portugal. He aided his son in procuring funds in Spain for the continuation of the…

…concessions particularly with France and Portugal in the East Indian archipelago the contest was with the Dutch and the Portuguese and in China it was with virtually all maritime powers in northern and western Europe. The result was that the East India merchantmen were very large ships, full-rigged and multimasted,…

…from Spain politically and from Portugal in trade, gained a major part of the English carrying trade. The Navigation Act initiated a rapid change in that pattern. After the restoration of the Stuart monarchy, English shipping nearly doubled in tonnage between 1666 and 1688. By the beginning of the 18th…

of France, Spain, and Portugal.

By the 1480s, Portuguese ships were already transporting Africans for use as slaves on the sugar plantations in the Cape Verde and Madeira islands in the eastern Atlantic. Spanish conquistadors took African slaves to the Caribbean after 1502, but Portuguese merchants continued to dominate the transatlantic slave trade…

…the transatlantic slave trade, the Portuguese generally purchased Africans who had been taken as slaves during tribal wars. As the demand for slaves grew, the Portuguese began to enter the interior of Africa to forcibly take captives as other Europeans became involved in the slave trade, generally they remained on…

…relationship with the increasingly powerful Portuguese, whereby he retained access to trade goods, especially to horses from the Middle East, while the Portuguese were allowed to trade in his dominions. The accounts from this period by the Portuguese travelers Domingos Pais and Duarte Barbosa depict a thriving city and kingdom…

Colonial expansion

Following Christopher Columbus’ first voyage, the rulers of Portugal and Spain, by the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), partitioned the non-Christian world between them by an imaginary line in the Atlantic, 370 leagues (about 1,300 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands. Portugal…

Portugal, in the 20th century the poorest and least developed of the western European powers, was the first nation (with Spain) to establish itself as a colonial power and the last to give up its colonial possessions. In Portuguese Africa during the authoritarian regime of…

Angola

…proclamation of the Republic of Portugal in Lisbon in late 1910, followed in 1926 by the creation of the authoritarian New State (Estado Novo), marked the advent of modern Portuguese colonialism. The authorities stamped out slavery and undertook the systematic conquest of Angola. By 1920 all but the remote southeast…

…Afonso extended Kongo’s relations with Portugal, reaching an agreement (the Regimento, 1512) with Manuel I of Portugal by which the Kongo accepted Portuguese institutions, granted extraterritorial rights to Portuguese subjects, and supplied slaves to Portuguese traders. Afonso also rebuilt the kingdom’s capital using stone, expanded the kingdom to the south…

…an advanced frontier post for Portuguese colonial trade with the interior. In 1948 the first colonato (planned agricultural community) for black Africans in Angola was established near the town. Cattle were raised, and various crops (including corn [maize] and cotton) were grown with the assistance of agronomists. Pop. (latest est.)…

About 1617 the Portuguese colony of Angola employed the Imbangala as mercenaries, achieving great success in wars against the Ndongo kingdom and other neighbouring peoples. Subsequently many bands of Imbangala either were destroyed, joined with Ndongo or the Portuguese, or formed independent polities of their own in the…

The Portuguese had an interest in the vicinity of Kakongo and occupied the coast in 1883 to forestall French action in the area. They also made agreements with local authorities, such as António Thiaba da Costa, the holder of a Kakongo title who was simultaneously made…

The Portuguese established a controlled market, or feira, in Kasanje at this time, which served as a channel for the slave trade from states further in the interior, such as the Lunda empire. In the mid-19th century, Kasanje was able to repulse a Portuguese military expedition.…

…Kongo territory) and create the Portuguese colony that became Angola. Relations with Angola soon soured and then worsened when Angola’s governor briefly invaded southern Kongo in 1622. Later, Garcia II Nkanga a Lukeni (reigned 1641–61) sided with the Dutch against Portugal when the former country seized portions of Angola from…

…in the long war with Portugal and her Ndongo rival, Ngola a Hari. A treaty in 1656 ended the war and established Matamba’s boundary with the Portuguese colony of Angola. Njinga left no children, and, following a civil war in 1666, Matamba was ruled by the descendants of her general,…

…gave its name to the Portuguese colony of Angola. Portugal had intermittent relations with Ndongo from 1520, but it was only in 1575 that a Portuguese base was established—by Paulo Dias de Novais at Luanda Island. At first Dias de Novais cooperated with Ndongo, his forces serving as mercenaries in…

…of hundreds of years of Portuguese colonization, and the general overall educational philosophy for both countries was the same until independence. For Portugal, education was an important part of its civilizing mission. In 1921, Decree 77 forbade the use of African languages in the schools. The government believed that since…

…clove trade first attracted the Portuguese, who named the island and founded a settlement in 1521. The Dutch captured the Portuguese fort in 1605, took over the spice trade, and in 1623 destroyed a British settlement in the Amboina Massacre. The British took it in 1796, and after it had…

…of the 16th century witnessed Portuguese penetration of the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. Though they failed to capture Aden, the Portuguese blockaded the Indian trade routes to Europe via the Persian Gulf and Red Sea, eventually causing severe, lasting damage to the economy of Muslim Middle Eastern countries.

The quest for wealth and knowledge might logically have pulled the Portuguese to Australian shores the assumption has some evidential support, including a reference indicating that Melville Island, off the northern coast, supplied slaves. Certainly the Portuguese debated the issue of a terra…

The conference, proposed by Portugal in pursuance of its special claim to control of the Congo estuary, was necessitated by the jealousy and suspicion with which the great European powers viewed one another’s attempts at colonial expansion in Africa. The general act of the Conference of Berlin declared the…

Portuguese explorers of the region first encountered Tupians and principally dealt with them for many years. Indeed, Tupians may have been the most important Indian influence in Brazil’s early colonial period and in the culture that subsequently developed however, European diseases decimated the indigenous population,…

…Tordesillas (1494) between Spain and Portugal, dividing the non-European world between them, gave the Portuguese a legal claim to a large part of the area to be called Brazil. The Portuguese came upon the Brazilian coast in 1500 on the way to India and would doubtless have acted much as…

Conspiracies against Portuguese rule during 1788–98 showed that some groups in Brazil had already been contemplating the idea of independence in the late 18th century. Moreover, the Pombaline reforms of the second half of the 18th century, Portugal’s attempt to overhaul the administration of its overseas possessions,…

It was Portuguese navigators such as Diogo Gomes and Diogo Afonso, Venetian explorer Alvise Ca’ da Mosto, and Genoese navigators such as António and Bartólomeu da Noli, however, who began to report on the islands in the mid-15th century, shortly before a plan of active colonization and…

…the 1470s a colony of Portuguese was settled on the offshore island of São Tomé. The Portuguese had been experimenting with colonial plantations for more than a century and already had settlements on Cape Verde and the Canary and Madeira islands. On São Tomé they established fields of sugarcane and…

In 1483 the Portuguese landed in Kongo. Initially, relations between the Kongolese and Portuguese rulers were good. Characterized by the exchange of representatives and the sojourn of Kongolese students in Portugal, this period was a harbinger of late 20th-century technical assistance. Unfortunately, the need of Portuguese planters on…

…came under the rule of Portugal in the late 18th century. The Marathas ceded Nagar Haveli to the Portuguese in 1783 as compensation for a Portuguese vessel that their navy had destroyed. Two years later Portugal acquired Dadra, which became a kind of fief. After India achieved independence in 1947,…

The Portuguese acquired Daman and Diu as part of their grand design to control the trade of the Indian Ocean. In 1535, under a treaty with Sultan Bahādur Shah of Gujarat, the Portuguese built a fort at Diu, an important port on the flourishing commercial and…

This was the situation on the East African coast when Portuguese ships under Vasco da Gama arrived in 1498. The manifestly superior military and naval technology of the Portuguese and the greater unity of their command enabled them, in the years that lay…

In 1541 the Portuguese, whose interests in the Red Sea were imperiled by Muslim power, sent 400 musketeers to train the Ethiopian army in European tactics. Emperor Galawdewos (reigned 1540–59) opted for a hit-and-run strategy and on February 21, 1543, caught Aḥmad in the open near Lake Tana…

…its ruler when seafarers from Portugal first reached India. The city was attacked in March 1510 by the Portuguese under Afonso de Albuquerque. The city surrendered without a struggle, and Albuquerque entered it in triumph.

…N) was rounded by the Portuguese seaman Gil Eannes (Gilianes) in 1434, and some years later the first cargoes of slaves and gold were brought back to Lisbon. A papal bull gave Portugal exclusive rights over the western coast of Africa, and in 1469 Fernão Gomes was granted a trade…

During the colonial period Portugal was by far Guinea-Bissau’s most important trading partner. Although Portugal retained a significant role after independence, Guinea-Bissau also maintains important trade relationships with such countries as Senegal and India.

…the town was part of Portuguese India. The town was sacked and burned by the Portuguese in 1531. It was subsequently rebuilt, and in 1559 it was again taken by the Portuguese, who made it a permanent settlement. Damão became a flourishing port, but its importance waned with the decline…

The Portuguese were the first agents of this renewed contact, because they were among the few Europeans at that time to possess both the navigational know-how and the necessary motivation for the long sea voyage. During the 15th century the direct routes for…

…to the appearance of the Portuguese. The Portuguese were riding the momentum generated by their own seaborne expansion as well as by the fulfillment of the Reconquista and the establishment of an aggressively intolerant Christian regime in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. In Morocco it was neither the fervour…

…against the Moors carried the Portuguese to probe the West African coastline and the Spanish to attempt the expulsion of Islam from the western Mediterranean. In the last years of the 15th century, Portuguese navigators established the sea route to India and within a decade had secured control of the…

…colonization by the Spaniards and Portuguese from the late 15th through the 18th century as well as movements of independence from Spain and Portugal in the early 19th century. Even since independence, many of the various nations have experienced similar trends, and they have some awareness of a common heritage.…

The first Portuguese ship anchored in the Pearl River estuary in 1513, and further Portuguese visits followed regularly. Trade with China commenced in 1553. Four years later Portuguese paying tribute to China settled in Macau, which became the official and principal entrepôt for all international trade with…

The Portuguese, who for a century had been seeking a sea route to eastern Asia, finally arrived at Malacca in 1509, inaugurating a new era of European activity in Southeast Asia. Although much of Southeast Asia, including northern Borneo, experienced little Western impact before the 19th…

The Portuguese forcibly established themselves in Male from 1558 until their expulsion in 1573. In the 17th century the islands were a sultanate under the protection of the Dutch rulers of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and, after the British took possession of Ceylon in 1796, the islands…

The Portuguese established themselves on the islands in 1512, beginning many decades of conflict that caused great losses of life. The first major confrontation was between the Portuguese and the reigning sultans of Ternate and Tidore later, the Spanish, English, and Dutch wrestled for control of…

The voyage of Vasco da Gama around the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean in 1498 marked the European entry into trade, politics, and society in the Indian Ocean world. The Portuguese gained control of the Island of Mozambique and the port city…

The 1926 coup in Portugal created a Portuguese regime that came to be known as the “New State” (Estado Novo). Although most of the former abuses in Mozambique continued and in some cases were intensified, the New State consolidated the profit into fewer hands and promoted conditions that would…

Portugal claimed a swath of territory from present-day Mozambique to Angola. Although the Germans, whose territory bordered Mozambique to the north, accepted the Portuguese claims—establishing Mozambique’s northern boundary—British claims to the region contradicted those of Portugal, leading to prolonged negotiations. However, the Portuguese crown was…

Portugal’s initial response to the outbreak of revolt in Angola and Mozambique was all-out war, and by the mid 1960s there were some 70,000 Portuguese troops in each territory. Large numbers of Black troops were recruited, and villagers supporting the guerrillas were subjected to savage…

The Portuguese occupied a number of positions on the Moroccan coast between 1471 and 1505, which included Tangier in the north and Agadir in the south. The Spaniards conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold on the peninsula, in 1492, and between 1505 and 1510 they began…

En route to India, the Portuguese sacked Muscat in 1507 and soon controlled the entire coast. More than a century later the Yaʿrubid dynasty drove the Portuguese from the Omani coast, recapturing Muscat in 1650 and then occupying Portuguese settlements in the Persian Gulf and East African coastal regions. Their…

…it was founded by the Portuguese as a trading station in 1544 and in the 18th and 19th centuries had a slave market. Quelimane became a Portuguese colonial town in 1761 and two years later was established as a concelho (township). Sisal plantations were organized by German planters in the…

In 1886 Germany and Portugal had agreed on the Rovuma as the boundary between then German East Africa (now Tanzania) and Portuguese Mozambique, but the Germans later claimed (1892) that Portugal had no rights north of Cabo Delgado, approximately 20 miles (32 km) south of the Rovuma’s mouth. In…

In the late 16th century, Portugal had a fort, called Julfa, or Julfar, on or near the site the Persians expelled the Portuguese in 1622. The Dutch had begun their commercial penetration of the region, but they withdrew in the mid-18th century. By the 19th century, Britain had become the…

Several years after the Portuguese first explored Brazil, French traders in search of pau-brasil (a type of brazilwood) reached the rich area extending from the Cape Frio coast to the beaches and islands of Guanabara Bay—the economic and, above all, strategic importance of which was already well-known. On one…

São Tomé and Príncipe were uninhabited when they were discovered, about 1470, by Portuguese navigators. In the late 15th century the Portuguese sent out settlers (including many convicts and Jewish children who had been separated from their parents and expelled from Portugal)…

…Indian Ocean competing with the Portuguese route around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1510 he took Goa, in western India, which became the capital and stronghold of the Portuguese East, and in 1511 he captured Malacca at the farther end of the ocean. Later he subdued Hormuz (now in…

…end of the 16th century, Portugal in the East held only the ports of Goa and Diu, in India, and Macau, in China. The English dominated the trade of India, and the Dutch that of the East Indies. It was the Dutch, trading on the fringes of the known world,…

Portugal, initiated the first great enterprise of the Age of Discovery—the search for a sea route east by south to Cathay. His motives were mixed. He was curious about the world he was interested in new navigational aids and better ship design and was eager…

…domination, only the Spanish and Portuguese were admitted to their South American colonies. The rigid exclusion of all other foreigners had but few exceptions, though a small number of non-Iberian Europeans settled as a result of illegal or tolerated immigration. Most of the Spaniards came from Castile and the southern…

…16th century, brought by the Portuguese, Spanish, and, somewhat later, the French. It spread easily in the northern Philippines, where Spanish missionaries did not have to compete with an organized religious tradition and could count on the interested support of a government bent on colonization. Unlike the religions with which…

…by the Americans), with the Portuguese still clinging to the island of Timor. What were often called “pacification campaigns” were actually colonial wars—notably in Burma (Myanmar), Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia—and continued well into the 20th century. More peaceful Western encroachments on local sovereignty also occurred until the 1920s. Full-blown,…

For much of the 19th century, Portuguese colonists in Angola and Mozambique were fewer in number and weaker in authority than those in the interior of South Africa. At the beginning of the century,…

Portuguese influence in west-central Africa radiated over a far wider area and was much more dramatic and destructive than on the east coast. Initially the Portuguese crown and Jesuit missionaries forged peaceful links with the kingdom of the Kongo, converting its…

The first Portuguese ships rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, their occupants intent on gaining a share of the lucrative Arab trade with the East. Over the following century, numerous vessels made their way around the South African coast, but the only direct African contacts…

…involved the Swazi, Boers, and Portuguese. After the Swazi gained control of land almost to Maputo in 1864, the Gaza (under the victorious Mzila) migrated northward into the Buzi River area of present-day eastern Zimbabwe.

…agreed to pay tribute to Portugal, thus becoming the first Sinhalese king to accept the suzerainty of a European king. The kingdom of Kotte continued to exist nominally until 1597, when—with the death of its last ruler, Don Juan Dharmapāla—sovereignty officially passed to the king of Portugal, by a written…

By about 1500 trade in the Indian Ocean was dominated by Arab, Indian, Malay, and Chinese merchants, who together used various seafaring craft to transport a spectrum of cargo, from spices to elephants. In the…

…conquer the city by the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator in 1437—remained so until captured by the Portuguese in 1471.

The Portuguese, beginning with a voyage to Porto Santo off the coast of West Africa in 1418, were the first Europeans to promote overseas exploration and colonization. By 1487 the Portuguese had traveled all the way to the southern tip of Africa, establishing trading stations at…

In 1516 Portuguese adventurers arriving by sea inaugurated the era of Western penetration of Vietnam. They were followed in 1527 by Dominican missionaries, and eight years later a Portuguese port and trading centre were established at Faifo (modern Hoi An), south of present-day Da Nang. More Portuguese…

The pioneers were the Portuguese, southwestern Europeans with the necessary knowledge, experience, and national purpose to embark on the enterprise of developing oceanic trade routes with Africa and Asia. Their main goals were in Asia, but to reach Asia it was necessary to circumnavigate Africa, in the process of…

The Portuguese had not imported guns into western Africa on any scale and as a matter of policy had sold them only to their allies. In the highly competitive trading situation that followed the Dutch breaking of the Portuguese monopoly, all the European trading nations vied…

…the excessively conservative regimes of Portugal and Spain sought to maintain the colonial principle in western Africa. Encouraged and aided by independent neighbours, Guinean nationalists took up arms in 1962 and after 10 years of fighting expelled the Portuguese from three-quarters of Portuguese Guinea. In 1974 the strain of this…

With the advent of the Portuguese in about 1440, the Wolof were drawn first into a profitable trading partnership and then into a political alliance—though they remained sufficiently independent to repel Portugal’s more blatant attempts at infiltration.

…Western world began with the Portuguese in Mozambique. Early in the 17th century the Portuguese ousted Muslims from the gold trade of central Africa, and early in the 18th century they founded trading posts at Zumbo and Feira, at the confluence of the Zambezi and Luangwa rivers. By 1762 they…

…the advent of independence in Portuguese Africa in 1975 and in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) in 1980. But warfare in Angola and South African interference continued to provide pretexts to curb internal opposition.

Though the first references to Zanzibar occur only after the rise of Islam, there appears to be little doubt that its close connection with southern Arabia and the countries bordering the Persian Gulf began before the Common Era. At the beginning…

The Portuguese, who arrived on the east coast of Africa at the end of the 15th century, dreamed of opening up the interior and establishing a route to connect their eastern settlements with Angola in the west. The first European to enter Zimbabwe was…

Explorers

of King Manuel I of Portugal, from whom he received various privileges in 1497 these included a personal allowance, the title of counselor to his highness, and the habit of the military Order of Christ. Following up on da Gama’s pioneering voyage, three years later the king entrusted him with…

…II), with the supervision of Portugal’s trade with Guinea and the exploration of the western coast of Africa. John sought to close the area to foreign shipping and after his accession in 1481 ordered new voyages of discovery to ascertain the southern limit of the African continent. The navigators were…

…of Alentejo province in southwestern Portugal. Little is known of his early life. In 1492 King John II of Portugal sent him to the port of Setúbal, south of Lisbon, and to the Algarve, Portugal’s southernmost province, to seize French ships in retaliation for French peacetime depredations against Portuguese shipping—a…

…under the flags of both Portugal (1505–13) and Spain (1519–21). From Spain he sailed around South America, discovering the Strait of Magellan, and across the Pacific. Though he was killed in the Philippines, one of his ships continued westward to Spain, accomplishing the first circumnavigation of Earth. The voyage was…

…went into the service of Portugal.

Foreign relations

…Mwene Matapa empire by the Portuguese. His conversion to Christianity enabled the Portuguese to extend their commercial influence into the African interior from their trading base in Mozambique on the East African coast.

The Portuguese had already established themselves in southern India and at Malacca, where they learned of the huge profits that could be made in the regional trade between the China coast and Southeast Asia. Becoming involved in what the Ming court considered smuggling and piracy, the…

…economic blow fell with the Portuguese assault on trade in the Red Sea (c. 1500), which was accompanied by Ottoman expansion into Mamluk territory in Syria. Having failed to adopt field artillery as a weapon in any but siege warfare, the Mamluks were decisively defeated by the Ottomans both in…

…and Egypt’s loss to the Portuguese of control over the Indian trade, along with the sultans’ inability to keep their refractory Mamluk corps under control, gradually sapped the strength of the state. The best efforts of such a vigorous sultan as Qāʾit Bāy (reigned 1468–96) failed to make Egypt strong…

…solve the problem of the Portuguese colony of Goa, the last remaining foreign-controlled entity in India. Although its military occupation by Indian troops in December 1961 raised a furor in many Western countries, in the hindsight of history, Nehru’s action is justifiable. With the withdrawal of the British and the…

These Westerners were part of the vast exploration, trade, and colonization effort that reached South America, Africa, and South and Southeast Asia. From the time of the foreigners’ first arrival in 1543 until their expulsion in the 1630s, there was a modest amount of cultural transmission.…

…history that the Spanish and Portuguese made their appearance in the archipelago. In 1543 several Portuguese were shipwrecked on the island of Tanega, off southern Kyushu. These were the first Europeans to arrive in Japan, and the art of musket construction they passed on at this time immediately spread to…

To counteract the Portuguese fleet, supplied by the Safavids from their Persian Gulf ports, he built major naval bases at Suez (1517) and, as soon as he took Iraq, at Basra (1538), establishing garrisons and fleets that not only resisted the Portuguese naval attacks but also attacked them…

However, the rulers of Portugal, Navarre (Navarra), and Aragon-Catalonia (Spanish: Cataluña Catalan: Catalunya), whose frontiers began to be delineated in the 11th and 12th centuries, repudiated and often undermined the aspirations of their larger neighbour. The Reconquista was nearly completed by the middle of the 13th century, by which…

…revolt of Catalonia gave the Portuguese their opportunity. The lower classes and the clergy had always hated the Castilians, and the Portuguese aristocracy and the commercial classes—previously content with the patronage and the economic opportunities that the union with Spain had provided—had become dissatisfied during the preceding 20 years. They…

…Vasco da Gama returned to Lisbon from India with a small cargo of spices, threatening an end to the virtual monopolization by the Venetians of Eastern trade. Second, the Ottoman Turks, having taken Constantinople in 1453, continued their advance in Greece, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. In the course of…

Wars and treaties

…the Ottoman Empire and of Portugal were to be respected, with the exception that France would keep Portuguese Guinea.

…allegiance to the king of Portugal and, in return, were assured that their laws and customs would be left inviolate.

…to march through Spain to Portugal (October–November 1807). The Portuguese royal family fled, sailing to Brazil, and Junot arrived in Lisbon on November 30. The French army that conquered Portugal, however, also occupied parts of northern Spain and Napoleon, whose intentions were now becoming clear, claimed all of Portugal and…

…the beginning, England’s old ally Portugal showed itself reluctant to comply, for the blockade would mean its commercial ruin. Napoleon decided to break down Portuguese opposition by force. Charles IV of Spain let the French troops cross his kingdom, and they occupied Lisbon but the prolonged presence of Napoleon’s soldiers…

…the thrones of Spain and Portugal against the conservative claimants to those thrones. The alliance successfully supported Maria Cristiana, who was acting as regent for Isabella II in Spain and had allied herself with the liberals against the pretender Don Carlos in the First Carlist War (1833–39). In Portugal the…

…Treaty, (1810), agreement between the Portuguese government, then in exile in its Brazilian colony, and Great Britain, represented by its ambassador, Lord Strangford. The treaty provided for the importation of British manufactures into Brazil and the exportation of Brazilian agricultural produce to Great Britain also, British naval vessels were allowed…

…Spain on the other, with Portugal expressly understood to be included. It was signed in Paris on Feb. 10, 1763.

…support of two reluctant allies, Portugal and Savoy, which feared to oppose the Bourbons, whose forces controlled Spain and the Spanish possessions in northern Italy. Two allies who were to be of more value to France were the Wittelsbach brothers, Maximilian II Emanuel, elector of Bavaria, and Joseph Clement



Comments:

  1. Deverick

    It's useless.

  2. Yanis

    I understand this question. Is ready to help.

  3. Bernardo

    Straight on target



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