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BOOKS about Titian:
 TITIAN by Ian Kennedy --- https://bit.ly/2QdwwhI
 TITIAN : HIS LIFE by Sheila Hale --- https://bit.ly/2HIQblQ
 TITIAN : THE LAST DAYS by Mark Hudson --- https://bit.ly/2VwoeTn
 TITIAN, TINTORETTO, VERONESE: Rivals in Renaissance Venice --- https://bit.ly/2EjovmV
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Titian: A collection of 255 paintings (HD)
Description: "Titian was an Italian painter and one of the greatest artists of the Renaissance period. Considered as the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school, Titian painted works for King Philip II, Pope Paul III and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Born to a local modest official in Pieve di Cadore, Titian was sent to live with his uncle in Venice at the age of ten. Subsequently, he developed a keen interest in art and learnt the technique of painting and soon earned the opportunity to work with a few great painters of the era. Around 1518, he was deemed as one of Venice's leading artists with the completion of ‘Assumption of the Virgin’. Thereafter, Titian embarked on a prestigious career as a painter, receiving much support in his endeavor by a variety of lofty commissions. Much in demand in the courts of northern Italy around mid-16th century, his reputation spread like wildfire throughout Europe. Recognized as the "first painter" by Emperor Charles V and raised by him to the rank of Count Palatine, he painted astonishing mythology-inspired artwork and also created portraits of some of the leading personalities of the day during his lifetime. Retaining a lifelong interest in color, he continued to project amazing energy through his paintings until his death. Most celebrated for his mastery of color, creative works of Titian had a profound influence on countless future generations of artists."
MUSIC: Kevin MacLeod - Drone in D
Drone in D by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Contact: [email protected]
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Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (Milan, 28 September 1571 - Porto Ercole, 18 July 1610) was an Italian artist active in Rome, Naples, Malta and Sicily between 1593 and 1610. He is commonly placed in the Baroque school, of which he is considered the first great representative.
Even in his own lifetime Caravaggio was considered enigmatic, fascinating, rebellious and dangerous. He burst upon the Rome art scene in 1600, and thereafter never lacked for commissions or patrons, yet he handled his success atrociously. An early published notice on him, dating from 1604 and describing his lifestyle some three years previously, tells how "after a fortnight's work he will swagger about for a month or two with a sword at his side and a servant following him, from one ball-court to the next, ever ready to engage in a fight or an argument, so that it is most awkward to get along with him." In 1606 he killed a young man in a brawl and fled from Rome with a price on his head. In Malta in 1608 he was involved in another brawl, and yet another in Naples in 1609, possibly a deliberate attempt on his life by unidentified enemies. By the next year, after a relatively brief career, he was dead.
Oscar-Claude Monet (1840-1926) is a famous French painter and one of the founders of the Impressionism movement along with his friends Renoir, Sisley and Bazille.
Monet rejected the traditional approach to landscape painting and instead of copying old masters he had been learning from his friends and the nature itself. Monet observed variations of color and light caused by the daily or seasonal changes.
Claude Monet was born on November 14, 1840 on the fifth floor of 45 rue Laffitte,in the ninth arrondissement of Paris. He was the second son Claude Adolphe Monet and Louise-Justine Aubree. On the first of April 1851, Monet entered the Le Havre secondary school of the arts. He became known locally for this charcoal caricatures, which he would sell for ten to twenty francs. Monet also undertook his first drawing lessons from Jacques-Francois Ochard, a former student of Jacques-Louis David. On the beaches of Normandy in about 1856/1857 he meet fellow artist Eugéne Boudin who became his mentor and taught him to use oil paints. Boudin taught Monet "en plein air" (outdoor) techniques for painting.
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicholas Tulp (1632)
In this pyramid-shaped composition, seven awkwardly posed men with bright white, ruffled collars are intently observing a man named Dr. Tulp who is facilitating an anatomy lesson. He completely commands the right side of the painting, demonstrating on a male cadaver. The unity of the parts is remarkably well planned with the angle and size of the dead man drawing the viewer's eyes into the center.
The work depicts the important annual January anatomy lesson, which was an eagerly anticipated event for all the local senators, burgomasters, and aldermen of the city. The curators and rectors from the university also attended with crowds of professors and students while the general public purchased tickets to sit on benches in the back row. In The Body Emblazoned, Jonathan Sawday noted that, ". anatomization takes place so that, in lieu of a formerly complete 'body,' a new 'body' of knowledge and understanding can be created. As the physical body is fragmented, so the body of understanding is held to be shaped and formed."
This type of group portrait was a purely Dutch institution a unique and long established tradition that helped document and honor the officers of a guild or other organization. Usually six to twenty individuals shared the cost and composition equally. In this piece, Rembrandt's carefully rendered and illuminated faces stare at the corpse or glance out at the viewer to establish their sense of importance and inclusion. The scene is highly staged and dramatic with the esteemed physician wearing his hat to denote his status for the rapt audience. Rembrandt ensures that the viewer understands the narrative without distraction by limiting the colors to simply dark or brightly lit except for the bloody left forearm being dissected near the center of the composition. The brightest areas: the prone body, the faces, and Dr. Tulp's hands, which are meticulously drawn and subtly rendered, are meant to capture the viewer's attention. Rembrandt earned the highest esteem with this brilliant group portrait and received many similar commissions of this type.
Man in Oriental Costume (1632)
This ambitious painting depicts the Dutch notion of a Near Eastern Potentate, an exotic foreign subject that would appeal to an experienced, knowledgeable collector. A swathed and stately colossal figure stares sternly out, his shoulders and head dramatically illuminated from the front and back. His golden garment gleams beneath a metallic scarf and silver turban while ornaments and jewelry sparkle and glint.
During the 1630s Rembrandt depicted many figures wearing Middle Eastern garments in his paintings, drawings, and etchings. The commercial enterprises of the Dutch Republic had reached the Middle East by the early seventeenth century and Levantines were to be seen in the streets and marketplaces of Amsterdam. Portraits of imaginary Persian, Ottoman, or other "Oriental" princes became popular in the bustling city. But Rembrandt's images are not mere portraits of those people. Rather, they are imaginative representations of a distant culture that feature Dutch models, including Rembrandt himself, dressed in exotic attire.
The piece shows Rembrandt's mastery as a painter of light, as well as figures, which explains his use of a limited, muted palette to create endless depth. He used deep shadows that disappeared into obscurity with uneven golden illumination and highlights brushed in with bold, dashing strokes. Sometimes he used an abundance of paint, sometimes very little and sometimes he scratched the canvas with the handle of his brush he worked to create the exact effect he desired. Curator Walter Liedtke voiced his opinion: "I think Rembrandt satisfies a need for modern tastes. He's so contemplative. It's also brilliantly preserved. on a polished oak board here with oil paint, and wonderful textures. the linen, rough, you can actually. feel it."
The Storm on the Sea of Galilee (1633)
This painting, Rembrandt's only seascape, depicts the dramatic miracle when Jesus intervened to calm a violent storm on the Sea of Galilee. The biblical story from the New Testament would be familiar to the Dutch people of Rembrandt's time period. The influence of Rubens can be seen in the darkly churning, frothy waves that threaten to overturn the small wind-whipped boat. The mast of the boat creates a diagonal line that divides the composition into two triangles. In the left triangle, extreme danger and intense activity loom but there is a golden light illuminating the edges of the dark clouds, the agitated men and the ripped main sail. In the right triangle, a figure in red is draped over the side of the boat and the helmsman steadies the rudder against the bucking waves. Only one figure, dressed in blue, and holding onto his cap looks directly out at the viewer by steadying himself with a rope he has Rembrandt's features. The artist often painted himself into his compositions and here he engages the viewer in the turbulent activity. It is a concentrated scene of drama played out within a large, changing fearsome space. The enormous dramatic power of nature is shown testing mankind but the impending miracle is emphasized. To finish the story, the gospels say, once Jesus understood their dire plight, he stood up and pointing towards the storm, said, "Quiet! Be still!" and the vicious storm abated.
The extremely detailed depiction of the scene and story, the figures' varied expressions, the polished brushstrokes, and bright colors characterize Rembrandt's early style. 18 th century critics, especially Arnold Houbraken, a biographer of Dutch artists, preferred this style to his later less specifically detailed manner. As in most Baroque art, the viewer is invited to share an emotional experience, to become involved rather than passively observe.
1 /7 Titian: Love, Desire, Death at the National Gallery: In pictures
More than 8 million objects sit inside the British Museum. You can search through much of this online, exploring the artefacts individually or by geographical origin. Two of the galleries have digital versions online: Prints and Drawings , from artists including Degas and Henry Moore, and Oceania , which spotlights art and artefacts from Australia, New Guinea, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Make sure to also check out the History Connected channel, which gives an interactive timeline of objects across themes of art and design, living and dying, religion and belief, trade and conflict and power and identity.
Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 &ndash 27 September 1917), born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas (pronounced [ilɛʀ ʒɛʁmɛ̃ ɛdɡɑʀ d&oeligˈɡɑ]), was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. He is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism although he rejected the term, and preferred to be called a realist. A superb draughtsman, he is especially identified with the subject of the dance, and over half his works depict dancers. These display his mastery in the depiction of movement, as do his racecourse subjects and female nudes. His portraits are considered to be among the finest in the history of art.
Early in his career, his ambition was to be a history painter, a calling for which he was well prepared by his rigorous academic training and close study of classic art. In his early thirties he changed course, and by bringing the traditional methods of a history painter to bear on contemporary subject matter, he became a classical painter of modern life.
The International Gallery of Modern art houses masterpieces such as works by Medardo Rosso, Rodin, Kandinsky, Klee.
Housed in Murano, the museum hosts the most extensive historical collection of Murano glasses
Natural History Museum
An evocative and engaging layout for discover the secrets of nature and living beings
Museum of Textiles and Costumes with the itineraries dedicated to perfume
Visit the gothic Palazzo Pesaro degli Orfei located in Campo San Beneto and transformed by Mariano Fortuny into his private studio
Housed in Burano, the museum exhibits rare and valuable specimens of Venetian lace, from the 16th to the 20th century
It’s the house where Carlo Goldoni was born and It contains a small museum dedicated to him, and a library of theatrical studies
For over 500 years it has marked the life, the history and the continual passage of time of Venice
This painting depicts a splash in a Californian swimming pool. Hockney first visited Los Angeles in 1963, a year after graduating from the Royal College of Art, London. He returned there in 1964 and remained, with only intermittent trips to Europe, until 1968 when he came back to London. In 1976 he made a final trip back to Los Angeles and set up permanent home there. He was drawn to California by the relaxed and sensual way of life. He commented: ‘the climate is sunny, the people are less tense than in New York . When I arrived I had no idea if there was any kind of artistic life there and that was the least of my worries.’ (Quoted in Kinley, [p.4].) In California, Hockney discovered, everybody had a swimming pool. Because of the climate, they could be used all year round and were not considered a luxury, unlike in Britain where it is too cold for most of the year. Between 1964 and 1971 he made numerous paintings of swimming pools. In each of the paintings he attempted a different solution to the representation of the constantly changing surface of water. His first painted reference to a swimming pool is in the painting California Art Collector 1964 (private collection). Picture of a Hollywood Swimming Pool 1964 (private collection) was completed in England from a drawing . While his later swimming pools were based on photographs , in the mid 1960s Hockney’s depiction of water in swimming pools was consciously derived from the influences of his contemporary, the British painter Bernard Cohen (born 1933), and the later abstract paintings by French artist Jean Dubuffet (1901-85). At this time he also began to leave wide borders around the paintings unpainted, a practice developed from his earlier style of keeping large areas of the canvas raw. At the same time, he discovered fast-drying acrylic paint to be more suited to portraying the sun-lit, clean-contoured suburban landscapes of California than slow drying oil paint.
A Bigger Splash was painted between April and June 1967 when Hockney was teaching at the University of California at Berkeley. The image is derived in part from a photograph Hockney discovered in a book on the subject of building swimming pools. The background is taken from a drawing he had made of Californian buildings. A Bigger Splash is the largest and most striking of three ‘splash’ paintings. The Splash (private collection) and A Little Splash (private collection) were both completed in 1966. They share compositional characteristics with the later version. All represent a view over a swimming pool towards a section of low-slung, 1960s modernist architecture in the background. A diving board juts out of the margin into the paintings’ foreground, beneath which the splash is represented by areas of lighter blue combined with fine white lines on the monotone turquoise water. The positioning of the diving board – coming at a diagonal out of the corner – gives perspective as well as cutting across the predominant horizontals. The colours used in A Larger Splash are deliberately brighter and bolder than in the two smaller paintings in order to emphasise the strong Californian light. The yellow diving board stands out dramatically against the turquoise water of the pool, which is echoed in the intense turquoise of the sky. Between sky and water, a strip of flesh-coloured land denotes the horizon and the space between the pool and the building. This is a rectangular block with two plate glass windows, in front of which a folding chair is sharply delineated. Two palms on long, spindly trunks ornament the painting’s background while others are reflected in the building’s windows. A frond-like row of greenery decorates its front. The blocks of colour were rollered onto the canvas and the detail, such as the splash, the chair and the vegetation, painted on later using small brushes. The painting took about two weeks to complete, providing an interesting contrast with his subject matter for the artist. Hockney has explained: ‘When you photograph a splash, you’re freezing a moment and it becomes something else. I realise that a splash could never be seen this way in real life, it happens too quickly. And I was amused by this, so I painted it in a very, very slow way.’ (Quoted in Kinley, [p.5].) He had rejected the possibility of recreating the splash with an instantaneous gesture in liquid on the canvas. In contrast with several of his earlier swimming pool paintings, which contain a male subject, often naked and viewed from behind, the ‘splash’ paintings are empty of human presence. However, the splash beneath the diving board implies the presence of a diver.
David Hockney: Paintings, Prints and Drawings 1960-1970, exhibition catalogue, Whitechapel Gallery, London 1970
Stephanie Barron, Maurice Tuchman, David Hockney: A Retrospective, exhibition catalogue, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York and Tate Gallery, London 1988, p.38, reproduced p.158, pl.37 in colour and p.39, fig.24 (detail)
Catherine Kinley, David Hockney: Seven Paintings, exhibition brochure, Tate Gallery, London 1992, [p.5], reproduced [p.5] in colour
Catherine Kinley/Elizabeth Manchester
February 1992/March 2003
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A Bigger Splash is one of a number of paintings Hockney made of Californian swimming pools. He has captured the moment just after someone has dived in. The splash is the only clue to their presence in the scene. Hockney was interested in using paint to capture transparent materials such as water, and fleeting moments, like the splash. The 1960s are often seen as the time that Britain emerged from the difficulties of the post-war years into a period of optimism. This colourful work seems to reflect this feeling.
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T03254 A BIGGER SPLASH 1967
Inscribed ‘DAVID HOCKNEY’ on stretcher
Acrylic on cotton duck, 95 1/4×96 (242.5×243.9)
Purchased from the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava through the Knoedler Gallery (Grant-in-Aid) 1981
Prov: the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava (purchased from Kasmin Ltd, 1968)
Exh: David Hockney: a splash, a lawn, two rooms, two stains, some neat cushions and a table. painted, Kasmin Ltd, January–February 1968 (works not numbered, repr.) David Hockney: Paintings, Prints and Drawings 1960–1970, Whitechapel Art Gallery, April–May 1970 (67.5, repr.) David Hockney, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hanover, May–June 1970 (41, repr.) David Hockney: Slike, Crtezi, Grafike 1960–1970, Muzej Savremene Umetnosti, Belgrade, September–October 1970 (30, repr.) David Hockney: Tableaux et Dessins, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, October–December 1974 (13, repr.in colour)
Lit: Nikos Stangos (ed.), David Hockney by David Hockney, 1976, pp.124–6, repr.in colour pl.190 Henry Geldzahler, ‘Hockney Abroad: A Slide Show’, Art in America, LXIX, February 1981, pp.136–7, repr. Marco Livingstone, David Hockney, 1981, pp.108–11, repr.pl.59 Carolyn Lamb, ‘David Hockney “A Bigger Splash”’, Completing the Picture: Materials and Techniques of Twenty-six Paintings in the Tate Gallery, 1982, pp.108–13, repr.in colour p.109
Repr: The Tate Gallery: Illustrated Biennial Report 1980–82, 1983, p.51 in colour
A detailed discussion of this picture, by a member of the Tate Gallery's Conservation Department, is to be found in Completing the Picture (op.cit.). Part of it was based on written replies by the artist to a questionnaire. Extracts from this essay concerning the painting 's style and subject matter, but also to a certain extent the techniques employed, are reprinted below.
'“A Bigger Splash” was painted sometime between April and June 1967 while Hockney was teaching at the University of California, Berkeley, USA. The Splash is based on a photograph he found in a book on the subject of building a swimming pool, and the background is taken from one of his drawings of Californian buildings. In many of his paintings the subject matter is a composite of personally observed details and photographic images. He feels photographs do not in themselves contain enough information to draw from but they can be developed imaginatively or used as mnemonic devices. He does not aim to produce an exact replica of the photograph.
'Discussing “A Bigger Splash” in his autobiography Hockney describes his fascination with the depiction of such an ephemeral thing as a water splash. “I love the idea first of all of painting like Leonardo, all his studies of water, swirling things. And I loved the idea of painting this thing that lasts for two seconds: it takes me two weeks to paint this event that last for two seconds” (David Hockney by David Hockney, p.124).
'The Splash was developed in three paintings. “A Little Splash” (1966) was the first version, only 16 × 20in. in size. This idea was enlarged and modified into “The Splash” (1966). Unsatisfied with the background, which he felt was too complicated, he simplified the building and landscape in the final version “A Bigger Splash” (1967). It is the largest of the three, 95 1/2 × 96in. in dimension, painted in Liquitex artists’ acrylic emulsion paint on cotton duck canvas .’
'. Hockney was greatly impressed by the acrylic paint he found in a Los Angeles art store when he moved there in 1963, and in fact gave up oils, using acrylic almost exclusively from this date until 1972. “The clear light of California suggested simple techniques as the light in a London room suggested an older ‘ chiaroscuro ’ technique.”
'Two painting techniques have been used in “A Bigger Splash”. Firstly a masking technique and secondly the more traditional application of paint by brush. Describing the picture, Hockney says “It's very strong Californian light, bold colour, blue skies. I rolled it on with rollers and the splash itself is painted with small brushes and little lines, it took me about two weeks to paint the splash” (David Hockney by David Hockney, p.124). The colours used were cobalt blue, ultramarine blue, raw sienna, burnt sienna, raw umber, Hookers green, Naples yellow and titanium white. These were applied mixed together or as tints (i.e. colour plus white for the sky and pool blue). Hockney stapled the canvas to his studio wall while he painted it. Not all of the canvas was covered by paint, the thin strip running horizontally across the centre of the painting (acting as the pool edge), and the wide canvas border were left unpainted. A canvas border was a frequently used pictorial device in his work between 1964 and 1967 - “It was a kind of concession to current art. It seemed to me that if I cut the picture off there, it became more conventional, and I was still a little frightened of that then” (ibid., p.125). No preliminary drawing was done on the canvas.’
The Tate Gallery 1980-82: Illustrated Catalogue of Acquisitions, London 1984
The Luncheon on the Grass, 1862 by Edouard Manet
Luncheon on the Grass ("Dejeuner sur l'Herbe," 1863) was one of a number of impressionist works that broke away from the classical view that art should obey established conventions and seek to achieve timelessness. The painting was rejected by the salon that displayed painting approved by the official French academy. The rejection was occasioned not so much by the female nudes in Manet's painting, a classical subject, as by their presence in a modern setting, accompanied by clothed, bourgeois men. The incongruity suggested that the women were not goddesses but models, or possibly prostitutes.
Yet in Le dejeuner sur l'herbe, Manet was paying tribute to Europe's artistic heritage, borrowing his subject from The Pastoral Concert - a painting by Titian attributed at the time to Giorgione (Louvre) - and taking his inspiration for the composition of the central group from the Marcantonio Raimondi engraving after Raphael's Judgement of Paris.But the classical references were counterbalanced by Manet's boldness. The presence of a nude woman among clothed men is justified neither by mythological nor allegorical precedents. This, and the contemporary dress, rendered the strange and almost unreal scene obscene in the eyes of the public of the day. Manet himself jokingly nicknamed his painting "la partie carree".
Manet displayed the painting instead at the Salon des Refuses, an alternative salon established by those who had been refused entry to the official one. Like his friend Courbet, Manet influenced modern painting not only by his use of realistic subject matter but also by his challenge to the three-dimensional perspectivalism established in Renaissance painting. Manet painted figures with a flatness derived partly from Japanese art and resembling (as Gustave Courbet commented) the flatness of the king or queen on a playing card.
Luncheon on the Grass - testimony to Manet's refusal to conform to convention and his initiation of a new freedom from traditional subjects and modes of representation - can perhaps be considered as the departure point for Modern Art. The modernist reinvention of pictorial space had begun.
His figures were in proportion and life like in contrast to the style of medieval Christian art and included an immense amount of detail. The artist was well known for his interest in human anatomy, developed through working with human corpses early in his career. This marked a revolution in European art.
The best known painting by Michelangelo is undoubtedly the fresco known as The Creation of Adam, depicting the legend of the creation of mankind from the book of Genesis. Adam is pictured in a reclining posture with the deity leaning towards him, an iconic artwork that speaks to spectators through the ages. It is believed that Michelangelo took inspiration for this work from one of Ghiberti’s panels depicting Adam and Eve.
Michelangelo was a devout Catholic but he was also strongly influenced by themes from ancient Greek and Rome, as well as contemporary scientific ideas which feature in his paintings. For example the shape of the red cloak in The Creation of Adam mirrors that of the human brain, suggesting that Adam himself is endowed with special knowledge.
Another fresco, The Last Judgement, depicts the second coming of Christ and took Michelangelo seven years to finish. This massive painting was unveiled in 1541 on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.
However some spectators objected to the pictures of naked bodies on display in a religious setting and subsequently it was decided to cover up the genitals, a task completed by one of Michelangelo’s apprentices. Other less well known paintings can be viewed in the Pauline Chapel of the Vatican, including frescoes such as The Conversion of Saul and The Crucifixion of St Peter.
Michelangelo’s methods influenced the Florentine artists who followed him. The 16th century saw a flowering of artistic endeavour under the patronage of the wealthy duke of Florence, Cosimo de Medici. A new artistic movement known as the Bella Maniera or Mannerism developed, a style that followed the Renaissance and preceded the Baroque, predominantly influenced by the colour palettes and forms created by Michelangelo.
According to Vasari, Mannerist artists produced paintings of “idealized grace”, with the use of vibrant colours and complex composition. Michelangelo influenced later artists such as Pontormo, Bronzino and Raphael. Spectators were drawn to paintings with idealized, muscular figures and exaggerated poses reminiscent of Greek and Roman sculptors.
Michelangelo was an example of a true Renaissance man, achieving prominence in several fields of artistic and intellectual endeavour and considered a genius by his contemporaries. He was the first artist to receive recognition during his own lifetime and his influence on the development of western art cannot be overestimated.